question about orbital hybridisation? thanks Watch

ah4p
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how would you work out the answer to b :s

the only hybridisation we have ever covered is that alkanes have sp3 hybridisation in single ponds, alkenes have sp2 hybridsation formin pi bonds in double bonds and alkynes have sp hybridisation in their triple bonds

we barely even cover what hybridisation actually means

thnx for any help
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charco
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how would you work out the answer to b :s

the only hybridisation we have ever covered is that alkanes have sp3 hybridisation in single ponds, alkenes have sp2 hybridsation formin pi bonds in double bonds and alkynes have sp hybridisation in their triple bonds

we barely even cover what hybridisation actually means

thnx for any help
Hybridisation means making orbitals used for bonding from atomic orbitals by blending together and rearranging to minimise repulsions.

The only difference between this question and carbon is that the d orbitals are available from energy level 3 upwards.

Atoms can use orbitals from the same energy level to expand the octet and accomodate more than four pairs of electrons.

To have seven pairs you need to hybridise 7 orbitals, hence sp3d3

To get five electron pairs around the atom you need 5 orbitals = sp3d
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Infraspecies
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spd hybridisation is an atrocity in every way.
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ah4p
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(Original post by charco)
Hybridisation means making orbitals used for bonding from atomic orbitals by blending together and rearranging to minimise repulsions.

The only difference between this question and carbon is that the d orbitals are available from energy level 3 upwards.

Atoms can use orbitals from the same energy level to expand the octet and accomodate more than four pairs of electrons.

To have seven pairs you need to hybridise 7 orbitals, hence sp3d3

To get five electron pairs around the atom you need 5 orbitals = sp3d
ok so you need to blend one orbital for each electron pair?
does it have to be a matching orbital from each atom like in a C-H bond in methane would a 1s orbital from the carbon have to belnd with a 1s orbital from the hydrogen?
i'm not sure i understand what the notation sp3d means - does it mean one s, one p and 3 d orbitals blended together?

thnku
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ah4p
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(Original post by Infraspecies)
spd hybridisation is an atrocity in every way.
why?
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charco
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(Original post by ah4p)
ok so you need to blend one orbital for each electron pair?
does it have to be a matching orbital from each atom like in a C-H bond in methane would a 1s orbital from the carbon have to belnd with a 1s orbital from the hydrogen?
i'm not sure i understand what the notation sp3d means - does it mean one s, one p and 3 d orbitals blended together?

thnku
No, all of the orbitals come from the same atom (just like hybridisation in carbon).

sp3d means

one s orbital
three p orbitals
one d orbital

hybridisation is not an actual fact (more than hinted at by Infraspecies), but a model to allow an explanation of how the shaped atomic orbitals can take the form (shape and angle) observed in molecules and ions.
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charco
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(Original post by Infraspecies)
spd hybridisation is an atrocity in every way.
please don't go there... :naughty:

it won't help him answer exam questions at this level...
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ah4p
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(Original post by charco)
No, all of the orbitals come from the same atom (just like hybridisation in carbon).

sp3d means

one s orbital
three p orbitals
one d orbital

hybridisation is not an actual fact (more than hinted at by Infraspecies), but a model to allow an explanation of how the shaped atomic orbitals can take the form (shape and angle) observed in molecules and ions.
if all the blended orbitals come from the carbon how does this attach the hydrogen atoms? i assumed one of the ydrogen orbitals would blend with a carbon orbital which would therefore hold it in place :s

thnx again
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charco
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if all the blended orbitals come from the carbon how does this attach the hydrogen atoms? i assumed one of the ydrogen orbitals would blend with a carbon orbital which would therefore hold it in place :s

thnx again
The orbitals hybridise with a single electron in each. This allows overlap with the 1s hydrogen orbital which also has 1 electron (linear combination of orbital theory, LCAO)

carbon initially 2s2 2p2

hybridised 4 x sp3 orbitals each with one electron.

Then bonded by hydrogen (LCAO)
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Infraspecies
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(Original post by charco)
please don't go there... :naughty:

it won't help him answer exam questions at this level...
It's okay, I find drive-by comments satisfying enough.
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