AQA History B Unit 1 - International Relations: Conflict and Peace in the 20C

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Jitesh
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Hey guys, who's taking this exam?

I do topic 3,4,5 (Hitler's Foreign Policy, Origins of the Cold War and Crises of the Cold War)

I have some predictions for the exams but firstly I'm going to pretty much try answering every question they could ask for the 4 and 10 mark questions

I'll post them as I go along, if anyone finds them useful. AQA have gotten sneaky and seem to sometimes ask about events before a different event, so it's important to know the timeline it goes in. They sometimes ask about two events which are 'minor' and sometimes ask about a theme of events which can be grouped

For Hitler's Foreign Policy the exam board may use a cartoon from a British perspective. If it is by David Low (which it might say) it might be useful mentioning his 'radical' role.
If it is a Soviet source, you can mention the censorship in the USSR
If it's an American source, you can mention Capitalism vs Communism
just talking about provenance & purpose could get you 5/6

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Low_%28cartoonist%29

here are my notes on him:
David Low, a British Cartoonist started working for the Evening Standard in 1927. Low had left wing views, but the Evening Standard was quite right wing but Low agreed to work for them if they agreed to not interfere with his work. In 19387, Joseph Goebbels complained to the British that Low's cartoons were damaging Anglo-German relations. After the war, Low found his name on a list of people to be arrested after the planned invasion of Britain.
Hitler's Foreign Policy potential 4 markers:
Spoiler:
Show

Describe Hitler’s aims in foreign policy (4)
Hitler wanted to destroy the Treaty of Versailles by regaining land inhabited by German people, which had been taken away, such as the Saar and Danzig. He wanted to unite German speaking people under his rule; 7 million people living in Austria and 4 million in Czechoslovakia and Poland into his empire and expand eastwards to gain Lebensraum for German people. He wanted to destroy Communist USSR to make Germany a great power again.

Describe the return of the Saar and the importance for Hitler (4)
The Saar was taken from Germany by the Treaty of Versailles, and controlled by the League of Nations. A plebiscite was held in January 1935, 15 years after occupation. Over 90% voted to return to Germany, 8% voted to stay under control of the LoN and 2% voted to join France, making it significant as the plebiscite was very popular in Germany - the first ‘injustice’ of the ToV to be overturned, encouraged Hitler to challenge more terms and was industrial area which gave GY some money and resources to rearm.

Describe why Germany rearmed and how they rearmed (4)
The Disarmament Conference first met in February 1932 but FR would not disarm because of the fear of another German attack. Hitler withdrew from the Disarmament Conference in October 1933 and soon the LoN, insisting GY wanted peace and was prepared to disarm if other countries did. Hitler introduced conscription in 1935: their excuse was France had increased its term of conscription from 12 months to 18 months, increasing the number of trained soldiers. Hitler immediately announced a peacetime army of 550,000 and a new Air Ministry was to train pilots and build 1000 aircraft. The Anglo-German Naval agreement, signed in 1935, allowed GY to build a fleet of ships as long as it was no more than 35% of the size of Britain’s. By 1938, GY’s army had reached around 800,000, the navy had 47 U-Boats and the air force (Luftwaffe?) had over 2000 aircraft.

Describe Hitler’s foreign policy with Poland in 1934 and the effect of it (4) (would likely come up with the above question)
The 10 year non-aggression pact with Poland was signed in January 1934, which guaranteed the boundaries of Poland for 10 years. This satisfied the Poles as Hitler would not try to take back the Polish Corridor. It also pleased Britain as it was peaceful and showed GY accepting the ToV.

Describe how Hitler was able to remilitarise the Rhineland in 1936 (4)
On the 7th March 1936, 32,000 German soldiers marched into the Rhineland. Despite it being against the ToV and the Locarno Pact, there was no action because GB and FR were more concerned about Mussolini’s invasion of Abyssinia and GB believed the ToV was unfair and Hitler was only sending ‘troops into his back garden’. Hitler also ‘promised’ to sign a 25-year non-aggression pact and ‘had’ no further territorial ambitions in Europe. The invasion was only condemned by the LoN, but when a vote was cast, only Soviet Russia voted in favour of imposing sanctions.

Describe the results of the remilitarisation of the Rhineland (4)
(Part of the last question but could also include)itler had successfully reversed the ToV, giving him confidence to go further; the main territorial grievances of Versailles was Danzig & the Polish Corridor. Hitler’s position was strengthened; he proved his ministers wrong due to the lack of opposition and financial sanctions, increasing his confidence. It led to the signing of the Rome-Berlin Axis with Mussolini in 1936, resulting in Italy and Germany supporting the fascist General Franco in the Spanish Civil War of 1936-39, allowing Hitler the chance to test his troops, weapons and tactics. FR security was not affected though, due to the building of the Maginot Line - a vast series of fortifications. Together with the Abyssinian crisis, it marked an end to the LoN as a means of keeping peace.

Describe how Hitler took control of Austria in 1938 (4)
(This has came up twice!)The Anschluss of 1934 failed, despite Austrian Nazis murdering the Austrian Chancellor, Dollfuss, as the new Chancellor, Schuschnigg and Mussolini prevented a take over because Mussolini moved his troops to the border of Austria, forcing Hitler to back down. However, in 1936, Hitler had signed the Rome-Berlin Axis, strengthening Germany and Italy’s relationship, so by 1938 Mussolini wouldn’t intervene, and was too occupied with the Spanish Civil war. Also, in 1938, there were rumours of another Nazi plot to overthrow the Austrian government, so the Austrian Chancellor, Schuschnigg appealed to Hitler for help, but instead Hitler put pressure on Schuschnigg to appoint the leader of the Nazi Party in Austria, Seyss-Inquart as Minister of the Interior. Hitler tried to prevent a Nazi take over by trying to arrange a plebiscite, but Hitler moved German troops to the border, threatening to invade and encouraging rioting, forcing Schuschnigg to call off the plebiscite and resign. Seyss-Inquart replaced Schuschnigg as Chancellor, inviting the Germans to restore order. Hitler entered Austria on the 12th March 1938, and on the 14th March 1938 an Anschluss had been proclaimed as Hitler proceeded in triumph through Vienna, followed by a Plebiscite in April where 99.75% of voters agreed to the Anschluss. GB and FR protested but did nothing, as GB felt Austrians were German in tradition and were German speaking, and wanted a strong barrier to Communism.

Describe the results of the Anschluss of 1938.(4)
(can add detail from the above response) Hitler had gained the resources of Austria and the economic resources such as iron and steel, helping him gain Lebensraum. Another ‘injustice’ of the ToV had been overcome without opposition - Hitler was coming closer to destroying to ToV. GY possessed three sides of the western part of Cz - The Sudetenland - where 3 million German speaking people live: he was closer to fully uniting all German speaking people under his rule. The Anschluss proved the value of Hitler’s alliance with Mussolini, whilst also showing that many Austrians welcomed being part of the glory of the new Germany.

--------------------

Describe Appeasement (4)
Appeasement was the British Foreign Policy in the years 1919 to 1939, which is particularly associated with Neville Chamberlain who became PM in May 1937, and Lord Halifax, the Foreign Secretary. Appeasement involved negotiating with Hitler and giving in to reasonable demands in return for promises from Hitler. An example of appeasement was the Munich Agreement, over the Sudentenland in September and October 1938

Describe the arguments for Appeasement (4) - CRUFTED (Communism, Ready, USA, First World War, ToV, Empire, Depression)
possible response 1:
Hitler was standing up to Communism, so Britain welcomed the recovery of Germany as a stong barrier between Soviet Russia and the West. Britain wasn't ready for war, as there wasn't enough soldiers or equipment, meaning Britain could lose against Germany. The USA had the policy of isolationism, which meant they might not support Britain during a war. People remembered the horrors of the First World War and wanted to avoid another war at all costs: the Spanish Civil War showed that any future war could be worse, as seen in the bombing of Guernica.
possible response 2:
Britain felt Germany had genuine grievances from the ToV which was seen as unfair. Nobody knew if the countries in the British Empire would support war against Germany. Britain was also preoccupied with the problems caused by the Depression, including high unemployment leading to economic difficulty: Britain couldn't afford a rearmament programme.

Describe the arguments against appeasement (4) (probably would be arguments for and against; there's limited arguments against really)
Hitler was not trusted - he had broken many promises since 1933. It allowed Hitler grow his strength and power, whilst making Britain look weak and gave Hitler the confidence he would never be opposed by Britain. It also scared the USSR.

Describe the importance of the Sudentenland (4)
The Sudetendland in Czechoslovakia had 3 million German speaking people with a large army and strong defences. It had the Skoda armaments factories, large deposits of coal and defence agreements with FR and the USSR. Hitler wanted the Sudetenland, because he wanted the Czechoslovakian land for lebensraum, he hated the democratic government of Czechoslovakia and hated the fact that it had been created as part of the WW1 peace treaties.

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Cal1999
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(Original post by Jitesh)
Hey guys, who's taking this exam?

I do topic 3,4,5 (Hitler's Foreign Policy, Origins of the Cold War and Crises of the Cold War)

I have some predictions for the exams but firstly I'm going to pretty much try answering every question they could ask for the 4 and 10 mark questions

I'll post them as I go along, if anyone finds them useful. AQA have gotten sneaky and seem to sometimes ask about events before a different event, so it's important to know the timeline it goes in. They sometimes ask about two events which are 'minor' and sometimes ask about a theme of events which can be grouped

Hitler's Foreign Policy potential 4 markers:
Spoiler:
Show

Describe Hitler’s aims in foreign policy (4)
Hitler wanted to destroy the Treaty of Versailles by regaining land inhabited by German people, which had been taken away, such as the Saar and Danzig. He wanted to unite German speaking people under his rule; 7 million people living in Austria and 4 million in Czechoslovakia and Poland into his empire and expand eastwards to gain Lebensraum for German people. He wanted to destroy Communist USSR to make Germany a great power again.

Describe the return of the Saar (4)
The Saar was taken from Germany by the Treaty of Versailles, and controlled by the League of Nations. A plebiscite was held in January 1935, 15 years after occupation. Over 90% voted to return to Germany, 8% voted to stay under control of the LoN and 2% voted to join France, making it significant as the plebiscite was very popular in Germany - the first ‘injustice’ of the ToV to be overturned.

Describe why Germany rearmed and how they rearmed (4)
The Disarmament Conference first met in February 1932 but FR would not disarm because of the fear of another German attack. Hitler withdrew from the Disarmament Conference in October 1933 and soon the LoN, insisting GY wanted peace and was prepared to disarm if other countries did. Hitler introduced conscription in 1935: their excuse was France had increased its term of conscription from 12 months to 18 months, increasing the number of trained soldiers. Hitler immediately announced a peacetime army of 550,000 and a new Air Ministry was to train pilots and build 1000 aircraft. The Anglo-German Naval agreement, signed in 1935, allowed GY to build a fleet of ships as long as it was no more than 35% of the size of Britain’s. By 1938, GY’s army had reached around 800,000, the navy had 47 U-Boats and the air force (Luftwaffe?) had over 2000 aircraft.

Describe Hitler’s foreign policy with Poland in 1934 and the effect of it (4)
The 10 year non-aggression pact with Poland was signed in January 1934, which guaranteed the boundaries of Poland for 10 years. This satisfied the Poles as Hitler would not try to take back the Polish Corridor. It also pleased Britain as it was peaceful and showed GY accepting the ToV.

Hi,

I'm on the same course as you. I've got loads of tips for the history, so if you want, just message me.
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Jitesh
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(Original post by Cal1999)
Hi,

I'm on the same course as you. I've got loads of tips for the history, so if you want, just message me.
What topics are you doing?
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Cal1999
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1,2 and 3. We can go over 3 if you want?
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Jitesh
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(Original post by Cal1999)
1,2 and 3. We can go over 3 if you want?
Ah, 3 is quite easy imo as you can link the events easily

Do you have any resources for topic 3 by chance? I have my class notes but my handwriting was so bad it's illegible haha

How do you revise? I have some good fact tests which our school made. They have uploaded them - I'll PM you a link
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Cal1999
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Thanks - PM me and we can talk there.
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username1753569
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I'm doing topics 4,5 and 6. Any predictions on 5 and 6? I have no idea really, not been through many History past papers
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Jitesh
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(Original post by slowdive)
I'm doing topics 4,5 and 6. Any predictions on 5 and 6? I have no idea really, not been through many History past papers
I don't do topic 6, but I have a strong feeling Afghanistan will be up somewhere for topic 5 and something Détente related

Didn't know you could do three constitutive Cold War topics?
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username1753569
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(Original post by Jitesh)
I don't do topic 6, but I have a strong feeling Afghanistan will be up somewhere for topic 5 and something Détente related

Didn't know you could do three constitutive Cold War topics?
I got told to revise Afghanistan in particular, so it looks like it may well come up! Yeah you can, and it makes sense to really, they all interlink smoothly
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Jitesh
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(Original post by slowdive)
I got told to revise Afghanistan in particular, so it looks like it may well come up! Yeah you can, and it makes sense to really, they all interlink smoothly
Yeah I just checked and you are of course allowed
Unit 2 doesn't allow it though (can't study 3 USA topics or 3 German topics)
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username1753569
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(Original post by Jitesh)
Yeah I just checked and you are of course allowed
Unit 2 doesn't allow it though (can't study 3 USA topics or 3 German topics)
What are you doing for unit 2? I'm doing Weimar Germany, Hitler's Germany and Race Relations. If you're doing any of those, I have some predictions that might be of use later to the time
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Jitesh
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(Original post by slowdive)
What are you doing for unit 2? I'm doing Weimar Germany, Hitler's Germany and Race Relations. If you're doing any of those, I have some predictions that might be of use later to the time
I'm doing the Roaring 20s, Hitler's Germany and Race Relations, but also know a bit about the Weimar Republic (not that I will be answering them!)

Although it's not for now, I have a strong feeling the impact of the war on German civilians will pop up, and possibly for the 10 marker a question about opposition
I think it would be unlikely that the Jews will be a question (as it was one for the specimen) but it's still possible
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tmifan
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I tend to find Topic 3 the worst compared to Topic 1 & 2, but that's probably because I haven't revised it as thoroughly as the others...😒
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Cal1999
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(Original post by tmifan)
I tend to find Topic 3 the worst compared to Topic 1 & 2, but that's probably because I haven't revised it as thoroughly as the others...😒

If you want to go over topic 1, 2 and 3 with me, just PM me 😊
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tmifan
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(Original post by Cal1999)
If you want to go over topic 1, 2 and 3 with me, just PM me 😊
That would be great. But maybe Friday or summat... Not ready enough yet...
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Cal1999
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(Original post by tmifan)
That would be great. But maybe Friday or summat... Not ready enough yet...
Yeah, that's fine. As the student room is a bit slow for messaging, do you have any other form of communication?
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A*GLORYHUNTER
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(Original post by Jitesh)
I'm doing the Roaring 20s, Hitler's Germany and Race Relations, but also know a bit about the Weimar Republic (not that I will be answering them!)

Although it's not for now, I have a strong feeling the impact of the war on German civilians will pop up, and possibly for the 10 marker a question about opposition
I think it would be unlikely that the Jews will be a question (as it was one for the specimen) but it's still possible
Hey, Im doing the exact same thing and i agree i dont think unemployment or jews will pop up Good Luck
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Jitesh
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(Original post by A*GLORYHUNTER)
Hey, Im doing the exact same thing and i agree i dont think unemployment or jews will pop up Good Luck
it's still possible so revise them, but imo it would be more likely to come up next year lol
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Jitesh
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Possible 10 marker for Topic 4 (predictions!)

Which was the more important cause of the development of the Cold War after 1945:
- the Korean War, 1950-1953
- the Hungarian Rising, 1956?

topic 5:

Which event was a greater threat to world peace:
-the building of the Berlin Wall, 1961,
-the failure of SALT II?

there are loads of possibilities though, but Afghanistan was on the specimen as a 10 marker so I would think it would more likely be a 6/4 marker.

I'll look for topic 3 later tonight
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ahsank98
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Has anyone got prediction for Peacemaking 1918-19 and League of Nations?
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