Cyprusstudent
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How to get full marks on writing the effects of smoke on lungs and alveolus
And also full marks on coronary heart disease effects and how it's caused
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Bria331
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You haven't given any exam board, subject or how many marks are full all of which would be helpful information.

However this is a link to the information requested about smoking: http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guide...jxs/revision/5

And this is a link to information about CHD: http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/0/21686950

Hoped it helped!
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kawehi
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For effects of smoke on lungs:

First, name the chemicals found in smoke:
Tar, Carbon Monoxide, Carcinogens and Nicotine

Tar's effects on the lungs:
  • paralyses cilia
  • increases activity of goblet cells, so more mucus is produced
Next,
  • the cilia can no longer waft mucus to top of trachea
  • mucus stays in lungs
  • traps pathogens
  • substrate for bacterial growth
  • increased risk of infection
This leads to:

Smokers cough
  • which causes scar tissue build-up
  • smooth muscle increase
  • narrowing of lumen
  • decreased air flow
Emphysema
  • macrophages attempt to enter alveoli to digest pathogens in mucus
  • secrete elastase
  • destroys elastic tissue
  • decreases recoil of alveoli
  • decreases ventilation
  • lower SA:V
That's all you have to say about direct effects of smoke on the lungs, but if it asks about cardiovascular (which they probably won't) you need to include info about CO and nicotine.
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kawehi
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Coronary heart disease:
deposition of fatty substances in walls of coronary arteries
known as atherosclerosis
narrows lumen
restricts blood flow in coronary arteries
leading to angina

(c) discuss the possible links between diet and coronary heart disease (CHD);
Excess salt in the diet decreases the water potential of the blood.
As a result, more water is held inthe blood and blood pressure increases.
This can lead to hypertension, which can damage the innerlining of the arteries, which is one of the early steps in the process of atherosclerosis
Saturated fats can cause damage to the heart
45-47% of deaths from cholesterol have been linked to high blood cholesterol levels

Hope these helped!
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