Gcse edexcel history exam (1st june) nazi germany and cold warWatch
Also, I've written some key revision notes that some people might forget, hope this is useful!
THE BAMBERG CONFERENCE
Took place after the Munich Putsch and identified Hitler as the one true leader of the Nazi party allowing him to become the official political head of the party
WHY WAS THE NAZI PARTY SO UNSUCCESSFUL IN 1928?
The Nazi party only won 2.6% of the votes (12 seats) this is because it was during the Stresemenn era, Germany was in the middle of its economic prosperity so nobody was going to vote for extreme parties. The failure of the Munich Putsch gave the Nazi's a bad light, they could have been seen as violent and greedy for power. The Nazi party wasn't offering anything new to the political agenda, the only thing that was slightly different about them was their harsh views towards Jews.
HOW DID THE WALL ST CRASH AFFECT GERMANY?
5.5 million people were unemployed in 1931, 40% of factory workers lost their jobs. This led to mass poverty and unemployment, 5 major banks and 20,000 businesses crashed. Popularity for the Nazi party increased, many people began voting for them as the Weimar could not help the economy, the Nazi's won 105 seats in 1930.
WHY WAS THERE INCREASED SUPPORT FOR THE NAZI PARTY BETWEEN 1929-1923?
First of all, the Wall St Crash meant that many people were turning to extreme parties for salvation. hitler appealed to all types of people, he would protect big business and the middle class from communism as well as presenting that farmers were needed for autarky and he would save their land from communism too. He received some support from the working class through propaganda such as "Work and Bread" The SA all presented the Nazi's as strong and obedient, however they were also used violently to attack member of opposing political parties.
WAS THE WEIMAR REPUBLIC BORN TO FAIL?
Friedrich Ebert signed the Treaty of Versailles, contributing to the issues of poverty through hyperinflation (reparations of £6,600 million) and allowing Germany to accept the blame for WW1 (Article 231) and unemployment (Army reduced to 100,00) There was also the threat of uprisings, such as the Spartacist uprising and the Kapp Putsch, as well as the fact the government used proportional representation, meaning that decisions were never made and chancellor had to revert back to emergency decrees (Article 48)
DEVELOPMENTS OF THE NAZI PARTY, 1919-1923
Hitler's 25 point programme, Hitler becoming leader, Hitler appointing Ernst Rohm, Goering, Hess and Streicher, the creation of the SA, the newspaper Volkishcer Beobatcher and Der Strumer
GERMAN REVOLUTION 1918
CAUSES: Failure of WW1, Allies Naval blockade causes citizens to suffer, Russian Revolution inspiration
EVENTS: 40,000 sailours over took dockyard, many royals fled, Kaiser fled, SPD Friedrich Ebert forms Weimar, army would not stop riots
EFFECTS: New gov agrees to armistice which causes political turmoil
HITLER IN POWER
Hitler becomes chancellor in 1933, when the Reichstag fire occurs, he blames the communist and gets the permission from Hindenberg to rule by emergency decrees. Through this, Hitler removes communist seats from the Reichstag and replaces the 81 seats with Nazi's. Hitler now has a 2/3 majority in the Reichstag which means he is able to pass the Enabling Act (he can make any laws he wants for 4 years) this allows him to ban trade unions, political parties, and local governments, thus turning Germany into a totalitarian state.
DAF AND RAD AND REARMAMENT
The DAF is the Labour Front, this gave the Nazi's control of employers and their employees working rights. This meant that employees couldn't act against their employers but allowed Nazi's to regulate their working hours, wages, and rates (tax). The DAF also set up Strength Through Joy, this was Nazi organised leisure activities for working men.
The RAD is the National Labour Service, this was compulsory work for all men aged 18-25 for 6 months. It provided manual work for the unemployed, accommodation, food and wages were poor but it kept unemployment rates low. Through this, Hitler was able to build 700 miles of autobahns.
Hitler and Goering had a Four Year Plan to make Germany ready for war, because of this rearmament spending increased. In 1939, 26 billion marks were spent and the production of iron and steel trebled. The German army grew to 900,000 in 1939 and plastic production increased by 460%. As the army grew, uniforms and machinery were in demand, so more factories opened and more people were employed to supply these products. Through these policies, unemployment decreased to 0.5 million in 1938 and by 1939 Germany was ready for war. (Unemployment had only truly been reduced by removing women and Jews from working and not including them int he census)
OPPOSITION TO HITLER DURING WW2
WHY?: Bombings in cities (Germany was struggling), longer working hours, more rationing, travel restrictions, all women between 17-45 had to work.
WHO?: The White Rose Group, the Edelweiss Pirates, Dietrich Bonhoeffer and the July plot.