cashmoneyorg
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ATP - what is created when no H+ is available?

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Hype en Ecosse
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(Original post by cashmoneyorg)
ATP - what is created when no H+ is available?

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Nothing. Protons are a key ingredient in respiration: without them the whole process would come to a halt and nothing would get made at all!

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Gaiaphage
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There'd still be anaerobic respiration of course but I don't think that's enough to keep you alive for long.

Why would there be no H+ ions available though? The body has a very complex system of buffers to make sure this doesn't happen, if it does you would've been dead a long long time ago
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(Original post by Hype en Ecosse)
Nothing. Protons are a key ingredient in respiration: without them the whole process would come to a halt and nothing would get made at all!

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Hi,

I've just got a quick question. I understand that increased respiration due increased muscle contraction can generate heat for the body on a cold day.., But doesn't an increase in respiration rate also link to heat loss?

I'm confused by the fact that both points are contradicting each other???


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(Original post by ps1265A)
Hi,

I've just got a quick question. I understand that increased respiration due increased muscle contraction can generate heat for the body on a cold day.., But doesn't an increase in respiration rate also link to heat loss?

I'm confused by the fact that both points are contradicting each other???


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More heat = more heat available to be lost via respiration

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ps1265A
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(Original post by Hype en Ecosse)
More heat = more heat available to be lost via respiration

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So why do we increase metabolic rate when we're cold when the heat will all be lost?

Or is it the fact that we have LOTS of heat generated so losses won't really make a difference?


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(Original post by ps1265A)
Hi,

I've just got a quick question. I understand that increased respiration due increased muscle contraction can generate heat for the body on a cold day.., But doesn't an increase in respiration rate also link to heat loss?

I'm confused by the fact that both points are contradicting each other???


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Hi... I don't know if this will help, but when you talk about heat lost from respiration, it's usually in the context of why that energy isn't passed on to the next trophic level, right? (at least how I've seen it so far so sorry if this is wrong) So while the body gains heat generated by respiration, it has lost the energy that would be put into its biomass/have been passed on to the next trophic level...

hope that makes sense :s
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(Original post by ps1265A)
So why do we increase metabolic rate when we're cold when the heat will all be lost?

Or is it the fact that we have LOTS of heat generated so losses won't really make a difference?


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It won't all be lost. Some of it will be lost. Say if you lose 15% of heat at rest and you produce 300kJ of heat per minute, and then you start exercising, you produce 1000kJ of heat per minute and lose 30% of heat. That's still relatively more heat loss, but there's an absolute heat gain.

N.B: Figures are bull**** to demonstrate the point.
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(Original post by Hype en Ecosse)
It won't all be lost. Some of it will be lost. Say if you lose 15% of heat at rest and you produce 300kJ of heat per minute, and then you start exercising, you produce 1000kJ of heat per minute and lose 30% of heat. That's still relatively more heat loss, but there's an absolute heat gain.

N.B: Figures are bull**** to demonstrate the point.
Yup, that's exactly what I was thinking! Thanks for a fantastic explanation!


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(Original post by tara8000)
Hi... I don't know if this will help, but when you talk about heat lost from respiration, it's usually in the context of why that energy isn't passed on to the next trophic level, right? (at least how I've seen it so far so sorry if this is wrong) So while the body gains heat generated by respiration, it has lost the energy that would be put into its biomass/have been passed on to the next trophic level...

hope that makes sense :s
Thank you! Very helpful!


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(Original post by ps1265A)
Thank you! Very helpful!


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I'm glad it was of use!

oh, and in terms of why the metabolic rate increases (hoping someone will come and verify me explination so I can sure); That would increase as the enzymes and subrates involved in metabolic reactions now have an increased kinetic energy due to the heat energy released, causing more collisions between the enzymes and their substrates in a given time....right?

I mean that's how I understand it so if someone could let me know how accurate that is before my exam on monday that would be appreciated x)
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(Original post by tara8000)
I'm glad it was of use!

oh, and in terms of why the metabolic rate increases (hoping someone will come and verify me explination so I can sure); That would increase as the enzymes and subrates involved in metabolic reactions now have an increased kinetic energy due to the heat energy released, causing more collisions between the enzymes and their substrates in a given time....right?

I mean that's how I understand it so if someone could let me know how accurate that is before my exam on monday that would be appreciated x)
That seems right! What exam board are you doing?


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(Original post by tara8000)
I'm glad it was of use!

oh, and in terms of why the metabolic rate increases (hoping someone will come and verify me explination so I can sure); That would increase as the enzymes and subrates involved in metabolic reactions now have an increased kinetic energy due to the heat energy released, causing more collisions between the enzymes and their substrates in a given time....right?

I mean that's how I understand it so if someone could let me know how accurate that is before my exam on monday that would be appreciated x)
The collision theory of kinetic energy doesn't really apply well to large macromolecules on the scale of enzymes and substrates. There's no complicated deep-seated physiological reason metabolic rate increases with exercise: it's all very simple. Your muscles contract; this introduces an energy demand; metabolic rate increases to meet this energy demand (via molecular and hormonal signalling). Heat production is a consequence of increased metabolic rate, not a cause.

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(Original post by Hype en Ecosse)
It won't all be lost. Some of it will be lost. Say if you lose 15% of heat at rest and you produce 300kJ of heat per minute, and then you start exercising, you produce 1000kJ of heat per minute and lose 30% of heat. That's still relatively more heat loss, but there's an absolute heat gain.

N.B: Figures are bull**** to demonstrate the point.
I just like to ask a quick question; in terms of the word sex-linked, does it on relate to alleles on the X chromosome and NOT the Y? Because I was doing a question regarding baldness, in which the alleles are not on the X chromosome, "but the expression of the gene is affected by the sex of the person"... So wouldn't the allele be on the Y chromosome? And if so, how can the phenotype be controlled by TWO alleles?


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(Original post by ps1265A)
I just like to ask a quick question; in terms of the word sex-linked, does it on relate to alleles on the X chromosome and NOT the Y? Because I was doing a question regarding baldness, in which the alleles are not on the X chromosome, "but the expression of the gene is affected by the sex of the person"... So wouldn't the allele be on the Y chromosome? And if so, how can the phenotype be controlled by TWO alleles?


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As usual the A level biology spec isn't quite right, but what we're meant to assume is that there are no genes on the Y chromosome that aren't on the X. This means that the Y chromosome is essentially the X chromosome, missing some genes. So if it's not on the X, it won't be on the Y.

And yes, in A level "sex-linked" means it's on the X but not on the Y.
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(Original post by Gaiaphage)
As usual the A level biology spec isn't quite right, but what we're meant to assume is that there are no genes on the Y chromosome that aren't on the X. This means that the Y chromosome is essentially the X chromosome, missing some genes. So if it's not on the X, it won't be on the Y.

And yes, in A level "sex-linked" means it's on the X but not on the Y.
Thanks,
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Ignore the writing; but the final picture shows my cross; the actual answer is 1/8?


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(Original post by Gaiaphage)
As usual the A level biology spec isn't quite right, but what we're meant to assume is that there are no genes on the Y chromosome that aren't on the X. This means that the Y chromosome is essentially the X chromosome, missing some genes. So if it's not on the X, it won't be on the Y.

And yes, in A level "sex-linked" means it's on the X but not on the Y.
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(Original post by ps1265A)
Thanks,

Ignore the writing; but the final picture shows my cross; the actual answer is 1/8?


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Hmm. I don't think you're meant to put any alleles on the Y chromosome, so for 7)a)i) it'd be BBXAY and BbXAY

For 7)a)ii) she must be XAXa, so the answer is Bb XAXa and bb XAXa.

For the genetic cross, you're already told it's a son so you don't need to include the XX children. There are only 8 possible ways of getting XY and you're correct in choosing that one as the only colour blind but not bald one - so the probability is 1/8
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(Original post by Gaiaphage)
Hmm. I don't think you're meant to put any alleles on the Y chromosome, so for 7)a)i) it'd be BBXAY and BbXAY

For 7)a)ii) she must be XAXa, so the answer is Bb XAXa and bb XAXa.

For the genetic cross, you're already told it's a son so you don't need to include the XX children. There are only 8 possible ways of getting XY and you're correct in choosing that one as the only colour blind but not bald one - so the probability is 1/8
THANK YOU SOOOO MUCH FOR REPLYING!

Ah yeah, the first 2 pages I corrected later

So the probability is based on the sons only???? The questions says what's the probability that it's a son with... Rather than "Given that the child is a male"


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p.s. Could you help me with this thread (not the original post, but the latest post I made) regarding photosynthesis

http://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/show....php?t=3337229
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(Original post by ps1265A)
THANK YOU SOOOO MUCH FOR REPLYING!

Ah yeah, the first 2 pages I corrected later

So the probability is based on the sons only???? The questions says what's the probability that it's a son with... Rather than "Given that the child is a male"


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p.s. Could you help me with this thread (not the original post, but the latest post I made) regarding photosynthesis

http://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/show....php?t=3337229
I think it means "What's the chance that the son has ..." so you have to assume you've got to reject the female ones
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