Hi. Could someone explain why the incumbent president normally lose in the MidTerms?

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user12345678910\
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Doing Gov3A on Monday and couldn't really find/understand why people change their voting behaviour for midterm elections. Only once in the last 50 years has the incumbent president gained ground in the elections (2002 Bush) but wondering why?
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Havenhand
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The incumbent president usually loses out in the Mid Terms for a variety of reasons;

1) The Mid Terms are a 'referendum' on the president performance, usually the president is forced to make unpopular decisions in government so when it gets to the mid terms people use their vote against the Government as a protest vote.

2) Furthermore during the presidential election year the house and senate candidates that are also up for election have a 'Coattails effect' if there a particularly popular presidential candidate for the Democratic party then Democratic candidates can benefit from this. When it gets to the mid terms however theres a reverse coattails effect as the president has lost popularity so candidates from the same party also lose their popularity.

3) For the Democrats mid terms can be especially painful, the Mid Term turnout levels are much lower than in a presidential year and lower turnout hurts the Democrats because the people who don't turn out (young people, minorities etc) are usually democrat voters. In an essay question you'd need up to date figures from the 2014 Mid terms of voter turnout and differential abstention.
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