Edexcel A2 Government and Politics - Political Ideologies

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casimkhan19
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Can somebody please summarise Liberalism, Conservatism, Socialism and Anarchism or direct me to somewhere that can

ITS TOMORROW GUYS AND GALS!!!!
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ChaoticRecon
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Liberalism:3 doctrines:individualism freedom rationality

Classical Liberalism:
Liberty of the individual
individual free to pursue self interest
tolerance of different beliefs - Voltaire quote "i detest what you say but i defend your right to say it"
minimal government - see: fragmentation of gov
free-market economy: market represents people not gov
rep. democracy

modern (new) liberalism:
A sense of social being and obligation
equality of opportunity
LIMITED welfare (saftey net)
promote positive liberty
promote choice and opportunity
EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY

welfare liberalism:
state sponsored welfare schemes: see: UK welfare "the dole"
state management of the economy, for example uk and quantitive easing
GREATER concentration on equality of opportunity
freedom from social deprivation (david cameron's "the good life"

Contemporaryromotion of greater economic equality/justice
pol and constitutional reform to control state powermore "popular" democracy
decentrilisation of gov
environmentalism (hello topic4)
promotion of workers groups and rights
freedom and equalitysupport for a tolerant, cosmopolitan society (MULTICULTURALISM)

libertarianism... (sigh)
highly restricted state, having about just as much power as an energy saving lightbulb (confined to defence and currency)
abolish laws that restrict lifestyle and personal morality - "sovereign over his own mind and body" - JS Mill
minimial law and order protection (sounds like anarchism? SYNOPTIC LINKS GUYZ)
a complete free market with no regulation (anarcho-captialism synoptic link? rothbard? hmm????)
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ChaoticRecon
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Socialism

Capitalism

marxist view: Tear it down, full scale collective ownership
dem soc view: modified, M(eans).O(f).P(roduction) shared between public and private
soc demo view: make it mostly private, with large scale industry regulated by state - limited state ownership

Equality:

marx view: absolute economic equality pursued - minimal incentives to create inequality - "to each according to his needs"
dem soc view: - high degree of economic equality seen and lived, but rewards given out on contribution
soc demo view: ineqaulity is natural result of free market but is justified - however minimum standard of living is expected via saftey net of welfare

the state:
marx view: tear it down, rebuild it as workers state, dictatorship of proletariat followed by dissolution of state
dem soc: democratic state, pluralist in nature - large scale production to be state ran
soc dem: promotes plural, liberal democracy, state should be a regulator but not producer - regulate in interest of poor noobs

freedom:
marx: true freedom is a fake b o u r g e o i s (LEARN HOW TO SPELL IT bour geo is) view. freedom can only be achived through equality
dem soc: individual liberty preserved as long as it doesnt interfere with socialist vews
soc demo: full individual libetires to no end, - guaranteed

social class:
marx: class conflict, class to be removed, seek a classless society
dem soc: reduce class conflict, favour choices in favour of workers
soc dem: do not analyse society through class, the state favours everyone, interests in all groups.

collectivism:
marx: totally collective, no questions asked
dem socL largely collective look, but indiviuals may thrive alongside with this
soc dem:individuals prefer to go after own goals - stirners egoism idea could come in handy here? collectivism limited to welfare and oublic service

fabianism/gradualism

essentially the idea that as the gap betweemn rich and poor gets larger, the rich will be voted out and a socialist party will take over that favours the workers, democracy at its best
"the only final result of capitalism will be socialism"

utopian socialism
- fourier and owen - small communities - the state is not the way to go

Hegalian

take one idea, mix it with a second and to make a third "better one"

Marxism in practice

russian revolution
china
frankfurt school
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ChaoticRecon
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ANARCHY IN THE UKKKKK

Anarcho-capitalism

Rothbard

Free market can solve all absolutely everything, eg, police can be outsourced to private firms.
All we need is private arbiters to settle bad happenings and we need to agree on a legal code to which all consent (doesnt that go against what anrchy stands for? lmao ok)
totally free market will enlighten us via transactions - betterment of all


anarcho collectivism/communism

AN ALTERNATIVE TO SOCIALISM

Bakunin + Kropotkin

idea that we can all go into small scale communities or worker communes, and be self governing through direct democracy - these communities must be volentary and you muse be able to come and go when you please

Anarcho-syndiclsm

Sorell

most violent of them all, workers state and unions, overthrow capitalsm through workers
attacak the state through use of strike, stopping the counrty in its stops - eg, full scale public service strike 24/7 until goverment collapses

no centeral state needed as industry can regulate and ort out welfare on its own reguard

Mutualism

Proudhon

NO MONEY! pay by hour using wage-slips, more fair system?
an idea that people help other out, eg, trading 4 goats and 7 cows for a car

cons: is it a fair system? eg, brain surgeon gets paid same amount as binman for 1 hours work

DAMN THEY HATE PRIVATE PROPERTY - but it can be tollerated aslong as it DOES NOT EXPLOIT





finally, im not doing conservatism for my exam so im not doing a summary for it, but enjoy.
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