History B AQA GCSE 20th Century Depth Study Thread June 10th 2015Watch
I'm doing Tsardom to Communism 1914-24, Hitler's Germany 1929-45, and War in Vietnam 1954-75 but of course you can post about any of the topics.
Help with question structure too?
How are people feeling? How did you find the previous exam?
KEY ISSUE 1: HOW AND WHY DID THE USA ACHIEVE PROSPERITY?
· Dislike of old empires· Immigration Problems· Dislike of TOV/Cost of the war· Problems with Congress- Wilson wouldn’t compromise terms of LoN· The Red Scare- fear of Communism from Eastern Europe and USSR
1921 Quota Act was passed, limiting immigration to 357000 every year.
1924 National Origins Act reduced this further, to 154000 per year.
By 1920, USA supplied 20% of the world’s petrol, 78% of grain and 40% of iron. This meant they could afford to put a high tariff on foreign goods.
Fordney McCumber Tariff (1922): 40%-400% tax on goods going into the USA, so people could only afford US products, therefore more US trade was drummed up. This is called protectionism and was instigated by President Harding. Principles of the tariff: Scientic tariff (if wages in a country are lower, the tariff was higher), and American Selling Price (tariffs were calculated using the US selling price not theselling cost elsewhere)
However other countries retaliated with their own tariffs making it harder for the US to get back into the world market after the crash.
Ford and the Motor Industry:· Ford ‘Model T’ Nicknamed Tin Lizzie· Cost $1200 in 1909 but just $295 in 1928 due to mass production· Ford could produce more than one car a minute· Parts were standardised to bring cost down and an assembly line was used so fewer skilled workers were used too
This springboards other industries in the cycle of prosperity· 1.7 million Model Ts were produced
This industry used 20% of the USA’s steel and 80% of its rubber.By 1929, 7 billion gallons of petrol were being used peryear, and 81,000 people were working in the same factory.
New consumer goods:· USA became electrified with a national grid- 70%of homes had electricity by 1927· 25 million cars and 25 million telephones in theUSA by 1929· 10 million radios in USA by 1929· Advertising created demand.
Buy now, pay later: people can afford what they want. 6/10 cars were bought on hire purchase.
The Republican government had a policy called ‘laissez-faire’meaning they interfered little with the US market, and kept taxes low to ensure speculation on the stock market.
This meant lots of people bought shares in companies: they could then be sold on for a bigger price.This caused a huge economic boom: the US’s gross interestgrew from $78bn to $103bn between 1919 and 1920 alone.
Sport: Called the ‘golden age of sport’ e.g.Bake Ruth earned $70,000 a year.·
Fashion and Flappers: became acceptable for women to smoke and drink in public, dress became shorter and lighter and corsets were abandoned, women could bob their hair and wear visible makeup,dances such as the Charleston became popular, vote gained for women in 1920·
Cinema: MGM and Paramount examples of key studios, silent films popular till the 70s, Greta Garbo was a film star who gave her last interview in 1927 but was still worth $55 million at the time of her death
Jazz Age: Sax, trumpet vibraphone etc., seen as ‘black’ music, was conceived in New Orleans, popularised by radios and clubs.
Buildings: Art Deco became popular; the Empire State was built in 1929 and was 103 storeys.
KEY ISSUE 2: HOW FAR WAS THE USA A DIVIDED SOCIETY?
Rich v Poor
Black workers: ¾ million unemployed
Older industries suffered e.g. railways with the motor car boom, 1928 strike in N. Carolina due to coal workers earning $18 fora 70 hour week when $45 was the living wage· 42% of people lived under the poverty line, 3-4%of people unemployed
Farmers: industry dropped dramatically, worth$22bn in 1919 and down to $13bn in 1928 due to the loss of the European market,competition from Canada, overproduction due to mechanisation
Immigrants faced discrimination e.g. Sacco andVanzetti (see below)
Everyone had to read English, Asian Immigrants were banned and everyone was charged $8 for entry. Immigrants were ‘Americanized’.
Sacco and Vanzetti: 15th April 1920,Fred Parmenter (paymaster at South Braintree shoe factory) was shot, Sacco and Vanzetti, 2 Italian Anarchists, were arrested on 5th May 1920 for the crime, found guilty and sentenced to death. Many people protested this but after appeals they were both electrocuted in 1927.
The KKK had its second wave- the film ‘Birth ofa Nation’ led to George Simmonds reviving it in Georgia. In 1925 5 million people nationally were in the KKK and 16 senators were elected with the Klan’s backing. 1/3 white Indiana men was a part of the KKK. It was so popular as it was a ‘pro-Christian’ group in a time of changing morals and there was a wave of racism and anti-Semitism due to immigration. The decline was due to the murder of a girl by the Indiana KKK leader, so in 1930 there were only 45,000 members nationally.
A WASP is a white Anglo-Saxon Protestant
Volstead Act: January 1920, banned manufacture, sale and transportation of alcohol. This was because of pressure from groups like the Anti-Saloon League, and it was seen to be funding German beer makers to drink
Effects included speakeasies (illegal bars in backrooms etc., 30,000 in NYC alone, actually doubled number of bars than before prohibition!), moonshine (home made alcohol: this caused deaths as it was badly made, 700mn gallons of beer were made per year), bootlegging (smuggling from Canada/West Indies), organised crime and gangsters such as…
Al Capone: A gangster who made money from bootlegging and alcohol provision. By 1927 he was earning $60mn a yearbootlegging alone, and had 700 men under his control, responsible for 500+murders, but began to lose popularity after 14th February 1929(Valentine’s Day Massacre) where 7 members of a rival gang were killed.Eventually imprisoned for income-tax evasion
Prohibition repealed in February 1933 because it was not working. This was due to the fact only 1500 people were enforcing the law, they had a low pay so were easy to bribe, America had too many boundaries to stop bootlegging and many didn’t like prohibition. $2,000mn worth of business went from brewers and bars to gangsters.
KEY ISSUE 3: WHY DID THE US STOCK EXCHANGE CRASH?
Problems of the 20s· 1926: collapse of land prices in Florida,overproduction, too many unsupported small banks, too much speculation of the stock market, large loans given to Europe had to be recalled causing issues over there (particularly in e.g. Germany)· Between 1924-9 shares rose in value 5 times,rising beyond what the firms were actually worth· Many people took out 90% loans to buy shares-$9bn in 1929· There was corruption and insider trading between banks, and then a forecasted crash caused panic.
Crash: Tuesday 29th October 1929: 16million shares sold, and no buyers. ‘Black Tuesday’.
Consequences of the crash
Hard to start selling due to tariffs abroad; increased starvation: 238 people admitted to hospital starving in 1931, decreased trade-$10bn in 1929 and $3bn in 1932· 5000 banks went bankrupt and 20,000 business closed down in 1932, 25% of Americans unemployed by 1933, wages fell by 60%,people lived in shanty towns called ‘Hoovervilles’· ¼ million had their homes repossessed.
1929- 2 million unemployed. 1933- 12 million unemployed.
KEY ISSUE 1: HOW AND WHY WAS HITLER ABLE TO BECOME CHANCELLOR IN 1933?
Impact of the Depression
More desperate situations benefitted the Nazis as people turned to extremist options. In November 1924 after the Rentonmark was introduced by Stresemann unemployment was at 1.5 million and the Nazis gained just 14 seats.
In July 1932, post crash, unemployment hit 5.5 million and the Nazis gained 230 seats after the USA called in their loans to Germany.
In 1930 Brunig was Chancellor and he made some poor decisions like cutting unemployment pay and raising taxes. Many people also turned to Communism, mainly the working class.
Hitler had a 25 point plan that was varied enough to please most people. This was outlined in his book, 'Mein Kampf', in 1923, which brought lots of publicity to the Nazis.
Failure of Weimar
A system of proportional representation meant there was always a coalition, meaning it was hard to make decisions. Stresemann died in 1929 and was the only politician skilled enough to lead during coalition. Germany was ruled by Article 48's emergency powers so was highly undemocratic.
The Nazis had good tactics- there were skilled leaders at every level. The party was reorganised on 27th February 1925, and leaders were trained in public speaking skills. Goebbels was appointed in 1929 and was skilled with the use of propaganda. The party had support from industrialists who were scared of communism.The were also flexible in their promises, for example dropped nationalising industry when it proved unpopular.
Depression caused a drop in trade and higher unemployment and the Nazis walked out of discussions in Weimar on how to solve it.
Hindenburg, the president, appointed Von Papen in 1932 but he couldn't lead very effectively as he had no support. So on 3rd December 1932 Schliecher was appointed but had the same problem so Von Papen signed a deal with Hitler saying that if Hitler was Chancellor, he could be Vice. This went ahead on 30th January 1933, so Hitler became the Chancellor.
People who would vote Nazi include: women who liked the promises he made for their children, 'peasants' who felt let down by Weimar, soldiers who liked rearmament, lower middle class (mittlestand) who liked Hitler's policy on small business) and youth who were indoctrinated by youth camps. The average age of the members was very young, at just 29.
KEY ISSUE 2: HOW DID HITLER CREATE A DICTATORSHIP?
Reichstag Fire and Enabling Act
27th February 1933: The Reichstag government building was burned down. Van Der Lubbe, a Dutch Communist, was blamed and executed for this. It was used by Hitler as an excuse to arrest lots of political opponents, but may have actually been set off by the Nazis.. The court convicted Van Der Lubbe but no other communists, Hitler was angry about this so set up the Nazi People's Courts which he controlled.
5th March 1933: Hitler called an election in which he gained just 44% of the vote but by arresting 81 communist deputies he could get a majority. He used this majority as well as terrorising other politicians using...
23rd March 1933: The Enabling Act, which meant Hitler didn't have to consult Hindenburg or the Reichstag before making laws. He made the Law for Protection of People and State and banned Communists.
Eliminating other parties
July 1933: Hitler introduced the Law against the formation of New Parties. Germany became a one-party state.
26th April 1933: Hitler sets up the Gestapo and reorganises local government into 42 Gaus led by a Gauleiter.
2nd May 1933: Hitler bans trade unions and opens the German Labour Front.
30th June 1934: Night of the Long Knives. The SA became too left wing for Hitler and their leader Rohm was considered too powerful so Hitler killed 400 of them along with other political opponents on this night.
2nd August 1934: Hindenburg dies and Hitler combines the titles of Chancellor, Head of the army and President to become the Fuhrer.
One Party law and order
The SS had 500,000 Aryan men in it and was led by Himmler. The Gestapo was the secret police led first by Goering then by Heydrich. Concentration camps began to be set up by the SS and SA. The number of crimes punishable by deat rose from 3 to 46 in 10 years.
The Reichstag Fire meant 25000+ people were taken to concentration camps and 57 communists were executed. 6000 speakers were set up in public places to blast Hitler's message. The Nuremberg Rallies, held once a year, were key for national pride.
In 1934 the radio was brought under state control. In May 1933 20,000 books were burnt on one fire by students and 2500 authors were banned.
Non-Nazi teachers were sacked, teachers had to join the Nazi Teacher's League. Textbooks were rewritten. There was a concentration of fitness to prepare girls for motherhood and boys for the army. Hitler Youth and the German Girl's League became compulsory in 1939. Hitler also controlled the Churches and set up the State Reich Church where he encouraged 'Mein Kampf' to be read and banned the Bible and the cross.
'Swing Youth' were middle class young people who liked jazz, which was banned. The Edelweiss Pirates sheltered army deserters and concentration camp escapees in Cologne. In 1944 the killed the Gestapo chief and many were hanged publicly. The White Rose Group were Munich Students who distributed anti-Nazi leaflets but many were hanged in 1943. The Kreisau Circle was a group of intellectuals responsible for the July Bomb Plot.
July/Stauffenberg Bomb Plot: 20th July 1944, assassination attempt on Hitler that fails but wounds him and kills many others. 5000 people were executed in response.
KEY ISSUE 3: DID GERMANS BENEFIT FROM NAZI RULE?
There were 4 ideas in the policy: Everyone must work, rearmament began ('guns before butter'), the 'beauty of labour' ('schönheit der arbeit'). Autarky was the idea that Germany could become self sufficient but this didn't happen.
Everyone had a job and a wage. The KdF- Kraft durch Freude- or 'strength through joy' was founded which rewarded workers. VW Beetles could be bought on a pay weekly scheme. Autobahns, which many people had to work on to decrease unemployment, improved transport.
Hitler increased employment by stopping paying reparations, building public works and autobahns, sacking Jews and women, rearmament and National Service. 'Invisible Unemployment' is the idea that certain sects like women and Jews and people in camps weren't counted as unemployed so figures looked much lower than they really were.
Standards of living went up in some ways for example cars were easier to buy, people had jobs, but there was little freedom and no right to vote. All culture had to be Geramn.
Women: the Law for the Enforcement of Marriage stated that 1000 marks were leant to each newly married couple and the couple could keep a quarter more of it for each child they had, meaning if they had 4 children they could keep the whole loan. They even considered a law in 1943 that said that all women who already had 5 'racially pure' children had to give their husband up so other women could have children with them too, but thankfully this was never passed. The BDM encouraged childbirth, and lebensborn was a home for unmarried mothers which doubled up as a brothel.
Nazis persecuted Jews, Gypsies, black people etc., etc.
In 1933 there was a boycott of Jewish businesses, 1935 the Nuremberg Laws were passed which said Jews werent citizens and couldn't marry non-Jews. 9th November 1938 was Kristallnacht, when Synagogues and properties of Jews were smashed and Jews forced to pay for the damag, 91 Jews were killed. In 1939 Ghettos were enforced and in 1942 the 'Final Solution' was decided on.
72,000 mentally ill patients were killed between 1939 and 1941
300,000 men and women were sterlisied between 1934-45.
Effect of war
Initially, this was positive- the war went well till 1942, and many civilians ate better due to rationing, meaning everyone had a balanced diet. Substitutes like ersatzkaffee (coffee made from barley and acorn) had to be used, and there was soap rationing and no toilet paper.
Propaganda was used to keep spirits up, it was announced that 1.5 million wool items had been delivered to the Eastern Front.
'Total War' was in the years after Stalingrad. Anything not helping the war effort was shut down. by 1943, zoo animals were being slaughtered for food and everyone had only 250g of meat per week each. Many large cities were bombed such as Hamburg in 1943 where 45,000 people were killed and Dresden in 1943 where 70% of the buildings were destroyed.
The People's Guard or 'Volksstrum' was a propaganda push to get people into gender appropriate jobs and tasks.
Economic Impact of WWII
Women didn't want to work- 3 millin ordered to go in 1943 but only 1 million went- the 3 Ks had been effective.
Foreign workers made up 21% of the workforce.
The Black Market arose and took lots of money away from the state.
Phew! These are taking a while to type up.
KEY ISSUE 1: TO WHAT EXTENT DID RACIAL INEQUALITY EXIST IN THE USA?
Experiences of war and Segregation Laws
Double Victory Campaign- this aimed for victory at war and against racism at home. Racial victories included more jobs, the Great Migration to the less racist North. However there was still lots of racism- a wage gap, segregation and discrimination.
In 1942 CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) was set up by James Farmer. 'War Without Violence' by Gandhi was a big inspiration. In 1941 A. Philip Randolph threatened to march on Washington to protest prejudice.
Roosevelt banned discrimination and set up the Fair Employment Practices Commission but with limited results. Jim Crow laws segregated black people in Southern States between 1876 and 1965. 'Black Codes' limited Civil Rights for black people.
The KKK had its third wave, for example in Atlanta in 1951-2 there were 40 houses bombed. In 1958, there was the Battle of Hayes Pond (not important, but quite interesting if you want to look it up!).
Emmett Till wolf-whistled a white girl in 1955 and then was brutally murdered in Mississippi. His mother chose to hold an open casket to show the destruction, but the murderers were found not guilty.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
1st December 1955- Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man, and was arrested. A 381 bus boycott ensued, led by NAACP and Martin Luther King Jr. (MLK). Lost companies over $1 million as 75% of bus riders were black and 40,000 people boycotted the companies.On 20th Decmeber 1956 bus segregation was made illegal.
Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka
Overturned Plessy vs Ferguson (1896) and said segregation was unconstitutional. The NAACP asked people to register their children at the local school no their racial segregated one, and on 17th May 1954 the Supreme Court rled that Segregation was unconstitutional. This set no deadline however so wasn't in practise all that effective. This occurred in Kansas. In 1955, KKK membership grew in Kansas.
March 1956: 22 southern states signed the Southern Manifesto which promised to end segregation.
This was a high school in Arkansas, attended by 9 black pupils. Happened as a result of Brown v Board. They were stopped from entering on 4th September 1957 by a white mob and the Arkansas National Guard which Governor Orval Faubus, an anti-desegregationalist, had ordered. Hoever President Eisenhower got involved and on 23rd September 1957 they managed to enter through a side entrance accompanied by the Armies' Airbourne Division. Only one of the 9 graduated from there hoever, and in 1958 Faubus closed 4 schools as a sulky reaction, but was stopped. Brown vs Board II was made- this stated the desegregation had to occur with all possible haste.
These were very low. The Grandfather Clause made it hard for black people to vote as it stated that people could vote if their grandfathers could, or they ad to pass an impossible literacy test. 6 states passed these laws.
The NAACP was founded in 1909. There were 55,000 black people in Oklahoma in 1900, and only 57 came from states allowing them to vote in 1967.
1 million black people were in the army in WWII but none recieved the medal of honour. However, Executive Order 8802 (passed during the war) banned discrimination in defence plants. 9981 (26th July 1948) was then passed which banned segregation in the armed forces, which was a big leap for black people.
50,000 moved north in the Great Migration.
In the Korean War 8% of the manpower was black.
KEY ISSUE 2: HOW EFFECTIVE WERE THE METHODS USED BY THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT IN THE 60S?
Freedom Rides and Marches
1st February 1960: the first sin-in in Greensboro,California. 4 black college students sat at a whites only lunch counter in Woolworths and asked to be served, This led to more peaceful sin-ins.
Freedom rides tested the government's willingness to enforce the law, e.g. in Alabama the KKK was given 15 minutes to attack a bus before the police intervened. But Kennedy did mandate segregation, which was positive!
4th May 1961: The first freedom ride from Washington DC toJackson. There were 13 people and around half were white. Klan members attacked the bus but 27 made it and then got arrested. 328 more riders got arrested that summer. In September 1961 interstate buses were desegregated.
James Meredith was the 1st black student at Mississippi University.
March on Washington
Organised b many different people, and each had different aims.
28th August 1963- 250,000 people including 50,000 white people marched on Washington to demand a $2/hour minimum wage. MLK delivered his iconic 'I have a dream' speech. Malcolm X called it the 'farce on Washington' because everyone had different aims on the march.
Mexico Olympics and black power
1968- Mexico Olympics. Tommy Smith and JOhn Carlos came 1st and 3rd in these Olympics but when the US flag was raised they refused to look at it and did the black power salute instead. They got banned from the Olympics.
Black Power in the 60s
New form of protesting that advocated violence. The SNCC chairman Stokeley Carmichael shouted the phrase 'Black Power' on the Meredith March in 1966, but nobody was sure if it referred to equality or supremacy. Nation of Islam, set up by Elijah Muhammad, rejected Christianiy. Malcolm X was a famous leader.
The Black Panthers were set up by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale from the SNCC in 1966. They rejected non-violent ideals and wanted to arm black Americans. Many riots resulted from this.
KEY ISSUE 3: HOW IMPORTANT WAS MARTIN LUTHER KING?
Rose to prominence after the Bus Boycott. Formed the SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) after the boycott. Then SNCC was sent into Mississipi as only 5.2% of black people could vote, whereas the southern average was 30%. They were called in by MLK as they had white volunteers. They established freedom schools to educate would-be voters and in November 1963 held a momck election called a Freedom Vote. 1964 was called 'Freedom Summer' but ended when 4 young activists were killed.
A friend criticised MLK's account of the boycott as being egotistic, but MLK did update it. He took a jail sentence in 1958 rather than pay a $10 fine.
In Birmingham, Alabama, MLK organised a march in 1963 with 30,000 people there. 500 were arrested every day. Eugene Connor was head of police and was cruel with tear gas + water cannons.
Civil Rights Act
Passed in July 1964- banned segregation in public accomodation, giving the overnment power to desegregate schools etc.
A group of segregationalists tried to block this using a filibuster, but it was passed yb Lyndon B johnson anyway.
Nobel Peace Prize
MLK won this in Dec 1964. Then he chose Selma Alabama as his next target as voting rights were being blocked there, but this had little effect and caused a lot of bitterness.
Meredith March 1966 began peaceful but split into MLK and the peaceful movement and Carmichael and the 'Black Power' movement after Meredith was shot.
King wrote 'Where do we go from here' in 1967 but it wasn't ery helpful.
The Watts Riots in 1965 occurred in an LA slum and in August 1965 riots broke out as 90% were black and the police almost all white. 6 days of riots, 34 dead, and 4000 arrested, in 1966 there were 43 race riots mmostly in the North East.
4th April 1968- MLK is assassinated on his balcony after giving a speech on striking workers in Memphis, Tennessee. Riots then broke out in 110 cities.
And I'm done! Hope this is helpful, an inquiries just ask xxx