Gcse edexcel b3 helpWatch
Each kidney consists of tiny tubules called nephrons which filters the soluble waste from the blod and reabsorbs the useful substances back into the blood.
1. Filtration: takes place in the hollow shaped "Bowman's Capsule" which is surrounded by a network ob capillaries called the glomerulus.The blood vessels branch from the renal artery - that brings unfiltered blood into the kidney. It is at high pressure which forces urea, glucose and water from the blood through the thin walla of capillary vessels + Bowman's capsule into the space in the capsule. Large molecules and red blood cells remain in the blood.
2. Re-absorption: as the solution travels through the rest of the nephron, glucose is re absorbed through the convoluted tubule. It is moved out of the nephron back into the blood against the concentration gradient.Water is reabsorbed through the walls of Loop of Henle and the collecting duct. The liquid in the collecting duct is urine which travels to the ureter and is excreted. Fermenters:used in industry to make things like wine, yoghurt etc. They use aseptic techniques - superheated steam is pumped through to kill microorganisms. Nutrients: the culture medium inside the fermenter has all the substances the microorganisms need to grow. Commercially, Microorganisms cultured in a soup-like broth - contains sugar + other carbs as a source of mineral ions. pH of nutrient solution controlled by adding acid or alkali. Oxygenation: sterile air is fed to the bottom of the container through perforated metal discs Agitation: ensures the even distribution of nutrients, gases - controlled by rotating paddles. Temperature: kept optimum by cooling systems as heat is released by paddles and by a water jacket which is what the fermenter is in. Hope this helps
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