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    Please note this is the UNofficial mark scheme meaning nothing is confirmed. Please post the questions + what the answers you think were in the comments and I'll keep updating this post. This is just so we can see how we did.. Thank you for contributing everyone

    For list of ALL questions on the topics with stems click here (Thanks hannahhutton )

    Schizophrenia
    Outline 1 clinical/diagnostic issue (4)
    Outline + evaluate 1 or more biological explanations (4+16)

    Depression
    Outline 1 clinical/diagnostic issue (4)
    Outline + evaluate 1 or more biological therapies (4+16)

    Addiction
    Outline the learning model for the initiation of gambling (4)
    Describe how risk factors increase ___'s desire to keep gambling (situation question) (10)

    Risk factors = Stress, Peer pressure + addictive personality type

    Outline the theory of planned behaviour as a model of preventing addiction (4)

    Media
    -Research into intense fandom (4)
    Answer

    -Mobile phone company wanting to make an advert to target elderly people (10)
    -Explanations of media influence on anti-social behaviours. (10)
    Answer


    Research Methods
    here
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    What were the questions for PSYA4?
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    Peer review:
    Peer review is the assessment if scientific work by others who are experts in the same field. (i.e. peers) The intention of peer reviewingis to ensure that any research conducted and published is of high quality.
    The Parliamentary Office of Science &Technology (2002) suggests that peer review serves three main purposes: ·
    Allocation of research funding – government & charitable bodies who fund research need to decide which research is likely to be worthwhile. ·
    Publication of research inscientific journals and books – peer review aims to correct incorrect or faultydata entering the public domain. Prior to peer review research was simplypublished and the burden of proof lay with opponents. ·
    Assessing the research rating of university departments – All university science departments are expected to conductresearch, which is assessed in terms of quality. Future funding for thedepartment depends on receiving good ratings from peer review.
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    It was also significant, it's to do with psychology probability being 5% and most of the figures in the table fell under that so it was signficiant?

    Media questions:
    Explanations of media influence on anti-social behaviours. (10)
    Explanations of media influence on anti-social behaviour.
    Cognitive Priming: Watching violence leads people to store memories or scripts of violent acts. These scripts are then retrieved and activated in real-life when a similar situation occurs. In other words, watching violent media puts us into a state where we react similarly to something which happens in the real world. Desensitisation: Continued exposure to violent media desensitises our physiological reactions to them. Our brains get used to seeing the violence and react less and less. HR and BP reduce, in addition to galvanic-skin responses (GSK). Social Learning Theory (SLT): A part of the behavioural approach, SLT believes that anti-social behaviour is a result of the observation and imitation of a role model in the media who is displaying the aggressive behaviour. Four processes need to be present in order for SL to occur – attention, retention, reproduction and motivation. The observer needs to have a level of self-efficacy (self-confidence) in their ability to replicate the behaviour. Cognitive Priming Support: Huesmann et al. (2003) – once aggressive scripts have been learnt, they are used to define situations and guide how to behave if similar situations arise. Violent scripts are so accessible because they are frequently seen on TV and children access these without difficulty. Desensitisation support: Carnagey et al. (2007) examined the effect of playing violence computer games on responses to real-life violence. They allocated PPs to two conditions – one played a violent game for 20 mins, the others played a non-violent game for 20 mins. All PPs were shown footage of real-life violence and had their GSR measured. PPs in the violent condition had reduced HRs and BPs. Bartholow (2006) – lowered GSR, BP and HR when playing violent games. Brain scans show less activity in habitual players who play violent games. SLT support (SLT): Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961). 72 male and female PPs were divided into an aggressive or non-aggressive condition. Children within each condition watched either a same-sex or different-sex role model behaving in specific ways towards the doll. Aggressive role models would use verbal and physical violence on the doll whereas the non-aggressive models would behave well. Results found that the children in the aggressive conditions behaved more violently than those in the non-violent condition. Boys showed more aggression if the role model was male and showed a little more aggression in general than girls who observed either a same or opposite sex role model. Whilst research into the effects of the media on anti-social behaviour are quite damming, they are in no way conclusive. Research may a positive correlation between the watching of anti-social material and similar behaviours – but this does not necessarily show cause and effect. Other variables are likely to influence levels of anti-social behaviour shown. All research done in Western cultures so western bias is present. Studies into the effects of the media are short-term; none of them identify the influence on anti-social behaviour in the long-term and so only give us a small insight into how the media actually affects negative behaviours. Some research does suggest that the media cannot be to blame – e.g. Gunter et al’s research into the introduction of TV in Fiji. Backs up the conclusive point above!
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    Can I just point out that you could have said Spearman's rank for what statistical test you would use AS LONG AS you justified by saying that you would measure the ppts' empathy SCORE against their helping behaviour SCORE as this would then be a correlation testing a relationship between these two co-variables. I.e., hypothesis = 'there will be a positive correlation between empathy score and helping behaviour score'. Incidentally, I wrote Mann Whitney-U but I don't see why Spearman's rank would have been wrong if you justified (more than happy to be corrected on this by the way!! Sorry in advance if I've got it all wrong!)...just thought it important to mention in case anyone was stressing out
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    Other media questions:
    10 marks on mobile phone company wanting to make an advert to target elderly people. Advice on how to help their TV advert.
    Research into intense fandom: (4)
    Maltby et al. (2001) studied 126 Male and 181 female South Yorkshire based students. The PPS completed a 23 item CAS scale and a general health questionnaire (GHQ28). The researchers found that individuals who reached the second level of the CAS scale (intense-personal) scored highly on depression and anxiety. This told them that people may intensely follow celebrities as a way to avoid rejection and make themselves feel better.
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    (Original post by soitfeelsreal)
    Can I just point out that you could have said Spearman's rank for what statistical test you would use AS LONG AS you justified by saying that you would measure the ppts' empathy SCORE against their helping behaviour SCORE as this would then be a correlation testing a relationship between these two co-variables. I.e., hypothesis = 'there will be a positive correlation between empathy score and helping behaviour score'. Incidentally, I wrote Mann Whitney-U but I don't see why Spearman's rank would have been wrong if you justified (more than happy to be corrected on this by the way!! Sorry in advance if I've got it all wrong!)...just thought it important to mention in case anyone was stressing out
    Thank god haha I wrote Spearmans Rho so I thought I just chose the wrong one. I was so unsure in the exam
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    Research Methods questions to add:

    Sampling method and why (3 marks?)
    Define reliability and how you can assess it (3 marks)
    How you measured the DV (3 marks)
    Ethical issues and ways of dealing with them in follow up study (4 marks)
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    You couldn't use Spearsman Rho as you were asked immediately before for an IV and a DV which you dont get in a correlation
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    Media Psychology questions:

    Discuss one or more explanations of how the media influences anti-social behaviour (4+6)

    [STEM] A mobile phone company feels that the market for phones for people aged 65+ is not sufficiently developed. They have produced a phone that is slightly larger, with a larger keypad, clearer display, and fewer but more straightforward applications.
    Using your knowledge of the persuasiveness of TV advertising, what advice would you give to the company so that it could make the TV advertising campaign as effective as possible? Refer to psychological research to justify your advice (10)

    Outline the findings of one or more studies into intense fandom (4)

    Schizophrenia questions:

    Outline one issue relating to the classification and/or diagnosis of schizophrenia (4)

    Outline and evaluate one or more biological explanations for schizophrenia (4+16)

    Research Methods questions:

    [STEM] Empathy is the ability to understand the feelings and emotions of other people. Some studies have shown that people high in empathy are more accurate at recognising facial expressions of emotions such as happy, sad, fearful, angry and surprised. A psychologist wanted to investigate this using a sample of 28 students from a local sixth form college.
    In the first part of the study the psychologist used a questionnaire to measure empathy in the participants. The maximum possible empathy score was 60. She found that the lowest empathy score in her participants was 20, and the highest empathy score was 55.
    In the second part of the study each participant was presented with a series of faces showing different emotional expressions. The emotions were happy, sad, fearful, angry and surprised. There were 20 examples of each emotion. Each of the 100 faces was presented randomly on a computer screen for 0.5 of a second. After each presentation the participant had to press the appropriate key to identify the emotion expressed. Once the key was pressed the next face was presented. The total number of emotional expressions correctly identified by the participants ranged from 14 to 92.

    Identify an appropriate sampling technique for this study and justify your choice (2)
    Spoiler:
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    I've seen a few different answers for this and you could probably get away with suggesting any sampling technique as long as you justified it correctly

    Explain why it would be important for the psychologist to carry out a pilot study in relation to the second part of the study (4)
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    Test to see if instructions are clean, unambiguous, etc.
    Test to see if 0.5 seconds is enough time, if 100 faces is a suitable amount

    What is meant by 'reliability'? Explain how the psychologist might assess the reliability of her questionnaire (1+3)
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    Reliability is the extent to which the procedures of a study can be repeated to obtain similar results
    Test-retest and split-half methods to test for reliability (personally I think test-retest works better but you could have either/both as long as you explained it/them properly)

    The psychologist used Spearman's Rho to see if the correlation between empathy scores and recognition of facial expressions of emotions was significant. The calculated value was +0.490. State whether this calculated value of rho is significant. Using the table below explain your answer (1+2)
    Spoiler:
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    The calculated value of 0.490 exceeded the critical value of 0.375 for a two-tailed test at the 0.05 significance level when N = 28 therefore the result is significant
    Attachment 430127
    Table values are for a two-tailed test. To achieve significance, the calculated value of rho must be greater than the table value.

    What is meant by a type 1 error? Explain why the psychologist thought that she had not made a type 1 error (1+3)
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    Type 1 errors are made when the significance level is set too leniently. This means the null hypothesis is wrongly rejected, and the experimental hypothesis is wrongly accepted. The psychologist doesn't think she made a type 1 error because her calculated value is significant even at the 0.01 level, meaning the significance level cannot have been set too leniently

    The psychologist submitted her report on the study for peer review.Discuss the purpose of peer review (6)
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    I'm not going to explain this because loveffie did a much better job than I could

    (Original post by loveffie)
    Peer review:
    Peer review is the assessment if scientific work by others who are experts in the same field. (i.e. peers) The intention of peer reviewing is to ensure that any research conducted and published is of high quality.The Parliamentary Office of Science &Technology (2002) suggests that peer review serves three main purposes:
    Allocation of research funding – government & charitable bodies who fund research need to decide which research is likely to be worthwhile.
    Publication of research in scientific journals and books – peer review aims to correct incorrect or faulty data entering the public domain. Prior to peer review research was simply published and the burden of proof lay with opponents.
    Assessing the research rating of university departments – All university science departments are expected to conduct research, which is assessed in terms of quality. Future funding for the department depends on receiving good ratings from peer review.

    [STEM] The psychologist wanted to do a follow-up study to investigate whether those participants with high empathy scores differed from those with low empathy scores in relation to helping behaviour. In order to do this she needed to consider how to measure her dependent variable and how to analyse the data that she collected.

    Identify the independent variable and the dependent variable in the follow-up study (2)
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    IV: empathy score
    DV: helping behaviour

    Explain how the psychologist might measure the dependent variable (3)
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    Observe participant's behaviour
    Questionnaire to obtain a helping behaviour score
    I've seen a few people who put content analysis for this one but that's more a method of data analysis rather than measurement. If you said observe participant's behaviour then analyse it using content analysis this should be fine.

    Identify an appropriate statistical test that the psychologist could use and justify your choice (3)
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    Mann Whitney U seems to be the most common answer but you could probably get away with using other tests as long as if fits with how you suggested measuring the DV and if you justified it well enough
    e.g. Spearman's rank can be used if your method of measuring DV would give you a score (e.g. a questionnaire) and you used empathy scores as ordinal data

    Identify ethical issues in this follow-up study and explain how the psychologist could deal with them (4)
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    Pressure to feel like they should be helpful (social desirability bias)
    Anonymity and confidentiality
    Right to withdraw
    Privacy of participants if you said that you would observe participant's behaviour for measuring the DV
    Those with very low or very high empathy scores may be suffering from personality disorders (empathy deficit disorder, hyper empathy syndrome) so should be offered help
    Protection from psychological harm/physical harm particularly if you suggested an observation for the method of measuring the DV
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    (Original post by hannahhutton)
    ~~snip~~
    thanks!! thats helpful
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    for 'Explain what is meant by reliability and say how the psychologist could test for reliability in the questionnaire'
    i first put inter rater reliability but then thought it was wrong so i left it and just wrote about test-retest, would i not get the marks because i put something incorrect first or the examiner might just ignore it?
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    For the ethics question in research methods, I also wrote about protection from harm so the place must be safety checked! hope I get the mark for this!
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    (Original post by Hollyemmam)
    for 'Explain what is meant by reliability and say how the psychologist could test for reliability in the questionnaire'
    i first put inter rater reliability but then thought it was wrong so i left it and just wrote about test-retest, would i not get the marks because i put something incorrect first or the examiner might just ignore it?
    I don't think inter-rater reliability would have got marks personally (I might be wrong!) because it's a questionnaire but if you wrote something else as well that would get the marks. I don't think you would lose any marks because you put something incorrect, you just wouldn't get any marks for that part of your answer.
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    (Original post by l1b2)
    For the ethics question in research methods, I also wrote about protection from harm so the place must be safety checked! hope I get the mark for this!
    Yes! You should have got marks for that, especially if you suggested an observation of the participant's behaviour for methods of measuring the DV. I'll add it to my answers now
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    (Original post by hannahhutton)
    Yes! You should have got marks for that, especially if you suggested an observation of the participant's behaviour for methods of measuring the DV. I'll add it to my answers now
    Thank you yes I talked about doing scenarios lol
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    for 'Suggest how the psychologist could measure the dependent variable in the follow-up study (3)' i put about observing the students in a classroom and categorising the helping behaviour e.g. emotional (i couldn't think of anything else, mind went blank) or the students could be given questionnaires and asked to score how much time they spend helping others weekly, is this roughly ok do you think?
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    For the reliability question I basically described the test rested method but didn't use the term. Do you think I can get full marks still? I stated to do the questionnare at beginning and then again at the end to see if there is same or similar result and if it was too much of a difference then another questionnare would need to be used.
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    (Original post by Hollyemmam)
    for 'Suggest how the psychologist could measure the dependent variable in the follow-up study (3)' i put about observing the students in a classroom and categorising the helping behaviour e.g. emotional (i couldn't think of anything else, mind went blank) or the students could be given questionnaires and asked to score how much time they spend helping others weekly, is this roughly ok do you think?
    Yeah that sounds great! As long as it makes sense and would get the psychologist some data that they could analyse (either through a statistical test or through content analysis) you should get the marks!
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    (Original post by hannahhutton)
    Yeah that sounds great! As long as it makes sense and would get the psychologist some data that they could analyse (either through a statistical test or through content analysis) you should get the marks!
    thanks
 
 
 

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