Psychology Watch

Bham369
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Can anyone help with Non-verbal communication? Gesture and touch mainly! Thanks! xxx
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The Learn Ranger
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I'm guessing it's GCSE you're after - try these search results in the TSR resource library - I'm sure you'll find the help you need here.
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sarah1001
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I can help!! PM some questions you want to ask x
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Bham369
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(Original post by sarah1001)
I can help!! PM some questions you want to ask x
Have you got any studies on gesture? I need aim, method, results, conclusion and evaluation. Thanks!
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sarah1001
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(Original post by Bham369)
Have you got any studies on gesture? I need aim, method, results, conclusion and evaluation. Thanks!
I have a study to do with non verbal communications(Yuki et al)? not gestures sorry- are you doing ocr psychology?
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Bham369
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(Original post by sarah1001)
I have a study to do with non verbal communications(Yuki et al)? not gestures sorry- are you doing ocr psychology?
No sorry I do AQA
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TheFinalFlare
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Hey there,

Assuming that you're doing GCSE AQA Psychology based on what you've said, I did a bit of searching and found two studies (one on gesture and then another on touch) that you may be able to use? With the evaluations I've tried adding some of my own points/expanding on current points that were found alongside the research based upon my knowledge of what I've studied in A-Level psychology to try and give you a breadth of points

Gesture -
Spoiler:
Show
Lynn & Mynier (1993)

Aim: To investigate the effect of gestures used by waiters and waitresses in a restaurant.

Procedure: While taking orders from seated customers, the waiters and waitresses were ordered to stand upright or squat down (squatting down allowed for more direct eye contact to be made with the customers).

Results: It was found that waiters and waitresses who squatted down collected a greater number of tips in comparison to waiters and waitresses who stood upright.

Conclusion: The gesture of squatting down near customers has a positive effect on the tipping behaviour of customers.

Evaluation:
  • Researchers had failed to consider other factors that may have had an influence on the tip size that the waiters received, excluding gestures (e.g. the size of the bill may have led to a greater tip being given to the waiter, rather than the gesture that the waiter was giving)
  • Findings can be applied to society on waiters and waitresses in terms of how they address customers in the work place and how they may be trained by companies e.g. companies may train waiters and waitresses to display gestures that enhance the likelihood of receiving tips; increasing the profitability of the company.
  • The research had made use of a field experiment as it was conducted in a natural setting. Due to the research being conducted in a natural setting, there is a greater likelihood that natural behaviour was being measured by the participants - making the findings ecologically valid.

Touch -
Spoiler:
Show
Fisher, Rytting & Heslin (1976)

Aim: To investigate the effect of touch on people's attitudes.

Procedure:
  • Female students in a library were handed books by a male or female librarian (the librarian was a confederate).
  • Half of the students had their hand subtly touched by the librarian when the books were handed to them, whereas the remaining half were not touched by the librarian.
Results:
  • The students who were touched by the librarian were reported to have a much more positive attitude towards the library and the librarian in comparison to those who were not touched.
  • The students who were touched seemed to be unaware of the fact that they had been touched by the librarian.
Conclusion: Touch is able to have an unconscious and positive effect on people's attitudes.

Evaluation:
  • The research sample only consisted of females, excluding males from the sample. Therefore, it could be argued that the research is unable to be generalised to the male population as we cannot be certain that males would display the same/similar attitudes to the library and the librarian as the females in the sample e.g. there is a potential that when being touched by the librarian, males may have a more negative attitude instead of having a more positive attitude as shown in the results of the study.
  • Some may question the ethics of the research as the students were unaware that they were a part of an experiment until after the research had been conducted.
  • There is a potential that the findings were a result of the gender of the librarian (confederate), rather than the findings being due to whether the participant had or hadn't been touched. For instance, students who were given books by a female librarian may have been more likely to then report having a positive attitude than students who were given books by a male librarian. This makes the validity of the research findings unclear.

I hope that this is helpful in some way and that the studies which have been mentioned are appropriate for you to make use of
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Bham369
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(Original post by TheFinalFlare)
Hey there,

Assuming that you're doing GCSE AQA Psychology based on what you've said, I did a bit of searching and found two studies (one on gesture and then another on touch) that you may be able to use? With the evaluations I've tried adding some of my own points/expanding on current points that were found alongside the research based upon my knowledge of what I've studied in A-Level psychology to try and give you a breadth of points

Gesture -
Spoiler:
Show
Lynn & Mynier (1993)

Aim: To investigate the effect of gestures used by waiters and waitresses in a restaurant.

Procedure: While taking orders from seated customers, the waiters and waitresses were ordered to stand upright or squat down (squatting down allowed for more direct eye contact to be made with the customers).

Results: It was found that waiters and waitresses who squatted down collected a greater number of tips in comparison to waiters and waitresses who stood upright.

Conclusion: The gesture of squatting down near customers has a positive effect on the tipping behaviour of customers.

Evaluation:
  • Researchers had failed to consider other factors that may have had an influence on the tip size that the waiters received, excluding gestures (e.g. the size of the bill may have led to a greater tip being given to the waiter, rather than the gesture that the waiter was giving)
  • Findings can be applied to society on waiters and waitresses in terms of how they address customers in the work place and how they may be trained by companies e.g. companies may train waiters and waitresses to display gestures that enhance the likelihood of receiving tips; increasing the profitability of the company.
  • The research had made use of a field experiment as it was conducted in a natural setting. Due to the research being conducted in a natural setting, there is a greater likelihood that natural behaviour was being measured by the participants - making the findings ecologically valid.
Touch -
Spoiler:
Show
Fisher, Rytting & Heslin (1976)

Aim: To investigate the effect of touch on people's attitudes.

Procedure:
  • Female students in a library were handed books by a male or female librarian (the librarian was a confederate).
  • Half of the students had their hand subtly touched by the librarian when the books were handed to them, whereas the remaining half were not touched by the librarian.
Results:
  • The students who were touched by the librarian were reported to have a much more positive attitude towards the library and the librarian in comparison to those who were not touched.
  • The students who were touched seemed to be unaware of the fact that they had been touched by the librarian.
Conclusion: Touch is able to have an unconscious and positive effect on people's attitudes.

Evaluation:
  • The research sample only consisted of females, excluding males from the sample. Therefore, it could be argued that the research is unable to be generalised to the male population as we cannot be certain that males would display the same/similar attitudes to the library and the librarian as the females in the sample e.g. there is a potential that when being touched by the librarian, males may have a more negative attitude instead of having a more positive attitude as shown in the results of the study.
  • Some may question the ethics of the research as the students were unaware that they were a part of an experiment until after the research had been conducted.
  • There is a potential that the findings were a result of the gender of the librarian (confederate), rather than the findings being due to whether the participant had or hadn't been touched. For instance, students who were given books by a female librarian may have been more likely to then report having a positive attitude than students who were given books by a male librarian. This makes the validity of the research findings unclear.
I hope that this is helpful in some way and that the studies which have been mentioned are appropriate for you to make use of
Thank you so much! That is just what I wanted!
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