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    I find Module 3 hard. Does anyone know any good sites that have a list of all the experiments, etc you need to know. BTW, I'm doing Edexcel.
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    (Original post by the_wizzz)
    I find Module 3 hard. Does anyone know any good sites that have a list of all the experiments, etc you need to know. BTW, I'm doing Edexcel.
    hmm, thats 20% of your final AS marks
    any sites? anyways you are suppose to know test for
    C=C
    C-OH
    Halides (organic + in organic)
    gas
    H, O, CO2, NH3, Cl, NO2, SO2
    ion
    CO3, HCO3, SO4, HSO4, SO3, halides, NO3, NH4, K, Na, Mg, Ca, Ba (there are charges of those ions)

    then you are suppose to remember all the steps of the experiments you did
    (talk about Technique, the test (remember to mention the Name of indicator in titrations), calculations, plans, evaluation (errors - talk about why theres error) and safety

    ask your teachers for each test
    I am sure that gas tests are GCSE stuff
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    Thanks...that's a lot to learn!
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    (Original post by the_wizzz)
    Thanks...that's a lot to learn!
    tbh thats all you have to learn
    then read the question and the marks to see which one you need to apply (is it planning only or technique and safety)
    bring a hi-lighter
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    btw who gives out reputation point
    i just receive one and I don't know what to do and how to thank the person who gave me one
    any idea?
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    (Original post by etomac)
    lol nice explnation

    btw wt if it is

    CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH2CH3
    umm i'm pretty sure you will not be marked down for getting the wrong one, just as long as it is one of the possible products, it will be fine. just be aware that you can get isomers.


    also this is a good way to remember with definitions (which i made up!):
    in alphabetical order you get :
    electrophiles, free radicals, and nucleophiles
    which corresponds to 6, 7 and 8 electrons in the outershell

    :P
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    (Original post by hihihihi)
    umm i'm pretty sure you will not be marked down for getting the wrong one, just as long as it is one of the possible products, it will be fine. just be aware that you can get isomers.


    also this is a good way to remember with definitions (which i made up!):
    in alphabetical order you get :
    electrophiles, free radicals, and nucleophiles
    which corresponds to 6, 7 and 8 electrons in the outershell

    :P
    nice one!
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    Hi,

    Can anyone explain what is meant by

    "dynamic"

    and

    "Equilibrium"
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    (Original post by Pegasus)
    Oooh!

    I'm doing Edexcel Nuffield and I'm having quite a bit of dificulty understanding the entire concept of electrophilic, nucleophilic substitution, addition etc (topic 10 stuff about halogenoalkanes and also so some topic 8 stuff on alkenes) does anyone know any good websites which goes through the topic nice and slowly and clearly, because I find the student's book completly incomprehensable?

    Greatly appreciated
    Try www.chemguide.co.uk
    a book to invest in - cuz the students book is shite is: Chemistry in Action by Freemantle
    I could try to help with specific questions - though people tell me my explainations are crap even if the answer are right!
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    (Original post by PaX)
    Hi,

    Can anyone explain what is meant by

    "dynamic"

    and

    "Equilibrium"
    Best to defince dynamic in the contect of equilibria. A dynamic equilibrium is 'exists when 2 reverisible or opposite processes are balanced'

    Equilibrium is when'the rate of the forwards reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction'

    Note equilibria can be shift in favour of one reaction going more to completion than the other.

    that may be a fiarly shite/unclear explaination, but you should get the idea. its not easy to understnad, as all reactions have a forwards and reverse, just shifted so far they 'go to completion', with a very low vale for the equilibrium constant.
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    (Original post by etomac)
    btw who gives out reputation point
    i just receive one and I don't know what to do and how to thank the person who gave me one
    any idea?
    That was me...thanks for the test list!
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    Does anyone know what pressure is required for the manufacture of sulphuric acid? It's not in my book.
    Thanks.
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    The Contact Process Conditions:

    • pressure of ~1 atmosphere (~100 kPa)
    • temperature of ~450 C
    • vandium (V) oxide catalyst
    • gases are passed through bed of catalysts and are cooled at each stage (~97% yield)
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    (Original post by supreme)
    The Contact Process Conditions:

    • pressure of ~1 atmosphere (~100 kPa)
    • temperature of ~450 C
    • vandium (V) oxide catalyst
    • gases are passed through bed of catalysts and are cooled at each stage (~97% yield)
    Thanks a lot
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    (Original post by mik1a)
    For Edexcel you need to know the following reactions by heart from organics, for all those who say it's easy:

    Alkanes: Complete and incomplete combustion, free radical substitution
    Alkenes: Electrophilic addition: Cl2, Br2, HCl, etc. and H2
    Alcahols: Oxidations, Nucleophilic substitutions, elimination, dehydration
    Haloalkanes: Nucleophilic substitutions ( i think), addition of KCN and NH4 to make nitriles and amines,

    I think that's it... but we need to know the conditions for all of them, balanced equations, products etc.
    I did AS EdExcel Chemistry last year and as far as i remember you also need to add these to your list:

    Alkanes: Cracking (Al2O3/porous pot at 400C)

    Alkenes: +acidified manganate (VII), +alkaline manganate (VII), +H2O, addition polymerisation e.g: LDPE, HDPE etc..

    Haloalkanes: +Ethanolic alkali (elimination to form an alkene)

    Alcohols: +PCl5 (the usual HCl steamy acidic fumes test)


    And just incase you get it in the exam.. you can't just "add KCN" to haloalkanes, you need to make the CN- IONS in solution using either NaCN in sulphuric acid and sodium hydrogen sulphite or KCN in ethanol. But don't worry i don't think we learned HOW to make the CN- ions in solution til this year.. just make sure you don't say "add KCN", you'd kill the poor bugger!
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    (Original post by the_wizzz)
    I find Module 3 hard. Does anyone know any good sites that have a list of all the experiments, etc you need to know. BTW, I'm doing Edexcel.
    Didn't you get the EdExcel Practical Booklet from your teachers?

    I learned that inside out last year.. well all the stuff relevant to AS.. gives you all the typical inorganic reactions, colours of precipitates.. aswell as organic reactions, not that you need to know many 'til next year:

    Alkenes: testing using Bromine Water, Alkaline KMnO4, Acidified KMnO4
    Haloalkanes: hydrolysis and then aq. acidified silver nitrate
    Alcohols: PCl5

    That's all really.
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    for the edexcel 3b paper which other lab techniques (e.g boiling under reflux, simple distallisation and recrystallisation) do you need to know and does anyone one know where you can find the procedures of these techniques?
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    For 3B you definately don't need to know anything about recrystallisation, that's A2 .. comes under unit 5 and synoptic.

    For 3B you need to know techniques used in simple organic preparations such as distillation and heating under reflux. What's not to understand?

    You only use distillation as a separation technique, and heat organic preparations under reflux when the reactants or products are particularly volatile.. so if they evaporate they rise up the condenser, condense over the first few centimetres and drip back down into the solution. So basically you do it when you need to carry out a reaction at a fixed temperature without losing any of the solvent.

    Oh, and make sure you can definately draw the diagrams.. only in 2D, but it's worth a fair few marks in 3B. Edexcel chief examiner Rod Beavon has the diagrams on his own website.. www.rod.beavon.clara.net .. and click on "Chemistry" (unless you're as fascinated about boats and trains as he is, i guess!)
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    When writing the formula for combustion, which of these is more acceptable? It says in my revision guide either, but I thought when writing about combustion, you only used one mole....

    Either: C(2)H(6) + 3.5 O(2) --> 2CO(2) + 3H(2)0

    Or: 2C(2)H(6) + 7 O(2) --> 4CO(2) + 6H(2)0
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    (Original post by LS.)
    When writing the formula for combustion, which of these is more acceptable? It says in my revision guide either, but I thought when writing about combustion, you only used one mole....

    Either: C(2)H(6) + 3.5 O(2) --> 2CO(2) + 3H(2)0

    Or: 2C(2)H(6) + 7 O(2) --> 4CO(2) + 6H(2)0
    We were told to use the first one as its just the one mole, but i think you'd get the mark for either.
 
 
 
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