Help with Psychology Terminology Watch

blitzchika
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So I need to do a write up of an experiment for homework. My class were given 20 words to remember and recall after a delay and were given 1 minute to write as many words we can remember. I've finished the majority of the homework but I'm struggling with a few things:

1. What are "demand characteristics" + "investigator effects"? And how do you deal with them?
2. I can't think of any "ethical considerations" yet alone how to deal with them
3. What does "validity of the study" mean?

Thanks for the help
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kennz
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(Original post by blitzchika)
So I need to do a write up of an experiment for homework. My class were given 20 words to remember and recall after a delay and were given 1 minute to write as many words we can remember. I've finished the majority of the homework but I'm struggling with a few things:

1. What are "demand characteristics" + "investigator effects"? And how do you deal with them?
2. I can't think of any "ethical considerations" yet alone how to deal with them
3. What does "validity of the study" mean?

Thanks for the help
1. Demand characteristics are where the participants receive cues by the experimenter, which make them aware of how they are supposed to react within an experiment. For example an experimenter may ask someone in an obedience study to pick up a pen, the participant now knows they're supposed to be obedient.
Investigator effects are cues from the experimenter that cause participants to act differently. They can be direct ( the way an experimenter asks a question may change someone's behaviour) or indirect effects (investigator experimental design effect which is where the way the variables are set out, may produce a desired outcome for the psychologist).

2. Ethics:
Right to withdraw- all participants need to know at the start of a study that they can withdraw at any time.
Protection from physical/psychological harm.
Deception- the participants need to be told correct information about the study so they are not deceived and must be told the study's aims by the end.
Confidentiality- where participants need to be able to control the fate of their personal information.
Privacy- not invading someone's privacy, you cant just go outside into a park and start filming people for studies.
informed consent- revealing the true aims of the study.

3. Validity is a big subject, its different to reliability.
validity-how correct a study's findings are.
reliability- is a study's results replicable in other places? Will the results be consistent?
There are a few types of validity:
Construct validity- whether a study measures what its designed to.
External validity- can you generalise findings to other people (population validity), over time (historical validity) and to real life situations (ecological validity).
Internal validity - is the change in the dependent variable directly because of the independent variable?
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blitzchika
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(Original post by kennz)
1. Demand characteristics are where the participants receive cues by the experimenter, which make them aware of how they are supposed to react within an experiment. For example an experimenter may ask someone in an obedience study to pick up a pen, the participant now knows they're supposed to be obedient.
Investigator effects are cues from the experimenter that cause participants to act differently. They can be direct ( the way an experimenter asks a question may change someone's behaviour) or indirect effects (investigator experimental design effect which is where the way the variables are set out, may produce a desired outcome for the psychologist).

2. Ethics:
Right to withdraw- all participants need to know at the start of a study that they can withdraw at any time.
Protection from physical/psychological harm.
Deception- the participants need to be told correct information about the study so they are not deceived and must be told the study's aims by the end.
Confidentiality- where participants need to be able to control the fate of their personal information.
Privacy- not invading someone's privacy, you cant just go outside into a park and start filming people for studies.
informed consent- revealing the true aims of the study.

3. Validity is a big subject, its different to reliability.
validity-how correct a study's findings are.
reliability- is a study's results replicable in other places? Will the results be consistent?
There are a few types of validity:
Construct validity- whether a study measures what its designed to.
External validity- can you generalise findings to other people (population validity), over time (historical validity) and to real life situations (ecological validity).
Internal validity - is the change in the dependent variable directly because of the independent variable?
Thanks very much!!!!
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