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    i love the immunity questions. same answer each time.
    pathogen has antigens
    white blood cells produce specifc antibodies
    antibodies destroy the antigens.
    memory cells "remember" which antibodies to produce
    rapid production of antibodies upon reinfection.
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    no because it is A clone it is genetically identical, so it will have the same characteristics!!!!
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    (Original post by Browny)
    no because it is A clone it is genetically identical, so it will have the same characteristics!!!!
    But unfortunately mutations will occur.

    So they will not ALL be the same.
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    (Original post by Browny)
    no because it is A clone it is genetically identical, so it will have the same characteristics!!!!
    good point
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    thats only when it has been tampered with!!!
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    (Original post by Browny)
    thats only when it has been tampered with!!!
    Not true.

    In Mitosis genetic errors occur. That is how bacteria can become resistant to some antibiotics, through beneficial mutations.
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    NO the Nucleus will still have the same characteristics, remember this is ''genetic engineering'' we are talking about!!!!
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    (Original post by Browny)
    NO the Nucleus will still have the same characteristics, remember this is ''genetic engineering'' we are talking about!!!!
    I think you keep missing the point here. Sometimes in genetic replication errors can occur and mutations form. This is how Evolution is powered.

    If what you were sayiing was correct then how could bacteria evolve (as the only reproduce by Mitosis) ?
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    but insulin is NOT an antibiotic, it is a substance!!!
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    (Original post by Browny)
    NO the Nucleus will still have the same characteristics, remember this is ''genetic engineering'' we are talking about!!!!
    the question was will all of the clone be ablr to produce insulin? Explain your answer.

    clone ,as underlined above, means that they are all genetically identical doesnt it.
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    well, if what YOU are saying is correct, how will insulin be produced then????
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    (Original post by Browny)
    but insulin is NOT an antibiotic, it is a substance!!!
    I know that insulin isn't an antibiotic. It is just a substance like you say.

    However the plasmid was inserted into bacteria.

    These bacteria continue to divide by Mitosis, producing in theory genetically identical offspring.

    Yet: some mutations will occur. Errors are made in Mitosis. One such may remove insulin from the bacteria.
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    A CLONE is genetically identical so it will be the same!!!! and the bacterium plasmid is genetically engineered!!!!!
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    (Original post by Browny)
    A CLONE is genetically identical so it will be the same!!!! and the bacterium plasmid is genetically engineered!!!!!
    I don't see what the fact that it is genetically engineered will have to do with anything.

    Go to this page and scroll down to the bit about "Mistakes created during DNA duplication".
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    Yes, during mitosis mistakes can be made - i.e cancer.
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    (Original post by LS.)
    Yes, during mitosis mistakes can be made - i.e cancer.
    Thank you.
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    Actually, the number of mistakes that remain incorporated into the DNA is even lower than this because cells contain special DNA repair proteins that fix many of the mistakes in the DNA that are caused by mutagens. The repair proteins see which nucleotides are paired incorrectly, and then change the wrong base to the right one.


    Well what is this then?????
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    but cancer is not a genetic diease, diabetes IS
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    (Original post by Browny)
    but cancer is not a genetic diease, diabetes IS
    It has got nothing to do with the disease, we are simply producing Insulin here.
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    (Original post by Browny)
    Actually, the number of mistakes that remain incorporated into the DNA is even lower than this because cells contain special DNA repair proteins that fix many of the mistakes in the DNA that are caused by mutagens. The repair proteins see which nucleotides are paired incorrectly, and then change the wrong base to the right one.


    Well what is this then?????
    So there could be some?

    So therefore all of the offspring from the bacteria might not be able to produce Insulin.
 
 
 
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