british monarchy: the crisis of state 1642 - 1689 Watch

harrietn98
Badges: 0
Rep:
?
#1
Report Thread starter 3 years ago
#1
Hello, I am completely new to this I thought i would give it a try as nothing else is working for me. I am really struggling to understand my topic (british monarchy: the crisis of state 1642-1689) from about 1645 - 1653. I could do with a simple explanation for what goes on in these 8 years as my teacher is far too complicated and i can't keep up and i'm starting to get really really really stressed out as nothing i am doing seems to be going in. PLEASE HELP
0
reply
gladders
Badges: 15
Rep:
?
#2
Report 3 years ago
#2
Well, 1645 is the year when the King begins to lose the Civil War, and Parliament begins to win. It's also the point at which the Independents begin to rise as a faction within Parliament - radicals advocating free tolerance of different religious denominations and less deferential to either Parliament or the King.

In 1646 the Cavaliers lose the First Civil War, and attempts are made by Parliament to negotiate a peaceful settlement that restores the King to power in a constitutional state. In 1647-8 the King outraged many by escaping and waging a new war (the Second Civil War) which he promptly loses.

Having lost much goodwill Parliament's attitude hardens and there are views that Parliament should impose a settlement on the King - perhaps even depose or exile him (although some speculate this was to try to spook the King into a settlement). But the Parliamentary side becomes increasingly divided, from the old, conservative Presbyterians who hate religious toleration versus the radical Independents.

In December 1648 Cromwell ordered Pride's Purge, which forced out of the Commons those Members who were adamant for a deal with the King, allowing a majority to exist which supported putting the King on trial for his life (the impact of the Purge was exacerbated by the fact that many not officially 'purged' opted to stay away from Parliament). This reduced-in-size Commons was called the 'Rump' Parliament.

As you probably know, the King was tried by an illegal Court of Justice in January 1649, defended the Laws of England and the Rights of the Subject, was summarily found guilty and executed. Shortly after, the Rump declared the Commons to be sovereign, abolished the House of Lords and the monarchy, and declared a Commonwealth.

The Commonwealth, unlike the monarchy and unlike modern states, had no single Head of State and no executive separate from Parliament. A Council of State was formed that acted as a collective government but it was composed entirely of MPs.

1649-51 was the Third Civil War, when the Cromwellian Army crushed revolts in England, laid waste to Ireland, and subdued Scotland. In 1652 Scotland and Ireland were incorporated into the English Commonwealth.

In 1653, following years of division and strife, the Rump Parliament, which had sought to have a policy independent of the Army, was dissolved by Cromwell, and he established a (temporary) dictatorship. He then established the Nominated Assembly, a unelected legislature based on the millenial predictions of the Fifth Monarchists, which ended in farce a few months later.

In December 1653 the Army enacted the Instrument of Government, England's only ever written constitution, which created the Protectorate, with Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector.

Happy to answer any questions...
0
reply
harrietn98
Badges: 0
Rep:
?
#3
Report Thread starter 3 years ago
#3
Thank you very much! This was very helpful to read, thank you for taking the time to help
0
reply
Abbey15
Badges: 6
Rep:
?
#4
Report 2 years ago
#4
How did you find the exam?
0
reply
X

Quick Reply

Attached files
Write a reply...
Reply
new posts
Latest
My Feed

See more of what you like on
The Student Room

You can personalise what you see on TSR. Tell us a little about yourself to get started.

Personalise

University open days

  • Edge Hill University
    Undergraduate and Postgraduate - Campus Tour Undergraduate
    Mon, 18 Feb '19
  • University of the Arts London
    MA Innovation Management Open Day Postgraduate
    Mon, 18 Feb '19
  • University of Roehampton
    Department of Media, Culture and Language; School of Education; Business School Undergraduate
    Tue, 19 Feb '19

Do you give blood?

Yes (53)
8.72%
I used to but I don't now (16)
2.63%
No, but I want to start (222)
36.51%
No, I am unable to (141)
23.19%
No, I chose not to (176)
28.95%

Watched Threads

View All