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    " Explain how ATP functions as the energy currency of the cell"
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    " Outline the main stages of aerobic and anaerobic respiration"

    Any help would be muchly appreciated! thanks x
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    1- ATP is seen as almost an 'energy carrier'- it's a more effective way of using the required energy for reactions rather than using a whole glucose molecule. Energy is needed to combine ADP and Pi to form ATP, it is a reversible reaction that can release energy as it is broken down into ADP and Pi again.

    2- Aerobic Respiration:
    Glycolysis- Glucose is hydrolysed into 2 molecules of a 3-carbon atom called pyruvate. This creates 2 ATP and 2 NADPH.
    Link-Reaction- Pyruvate reacts with an enzyme called CoEnzymeA which hydrolyses it to AcetylCoA.
    The Krebs Cycle- AceytlCoA is oxidised to Carbon Dioxide while NAD is reduced. The Krebs Cycle is a series of redox reactions.
    Oxidative Phosphorylation- NADH is oxidised back to NAD. This produces free electrons, these then pass through a number of CoEnzymes down an energy gradient.

    Anaerobic Respiration:
    Instead of being oxidised by oxygen, NADH is oxidised by pyruvate. Which, at the same time is being reduced by NADH. This causes the formation of lactic acid.
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    I've only just been back on here to see this thank you so much, I have an exam on monday and this has really helped me!
 
 
 
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