robzpotter
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#1
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#1
Hey can someone explain to me the differences in ALL the intermolecular forces

Induced dipole - dipole interactions
Perminant dipole- dipole interactions
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hannahc072
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I know this was weeks ago but just in case you still want an answer:
(in order of weakest to strongest)
1) London forces (induced dipole-dipole) exist between all molecules but are only really important between atoms (noble gases) or pure covalent molecules e.g. He or H2
Electrons are constantly moving which causes a temporary dipole in one molecule and this induces a dipole on a neighbouring molecule.
The more electrons there are in each molecule, the stronger the forces and the more energy needed to overcome them

2) Permanent dipole-dipole interactions occur between permanent dipoles in different molecules. The larger the difference in electronegativity, the larger the dipole and the stronger the attraction.
They occur between polar covalent molecules e.g. HCl

3) Hydrogen bonding is the attraction between the positive dipole on a hydrogen atom and the lone pair of electrons on a negative atom. H must be bonded to N, O or F
This is the strongest type of intermolecular force
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Pigster
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(Original post by hannahc072)
but are only really important between atoms (noble gases) or pure covalent molecules e.g. He or H2
Or between non-polar molecules, e.g. CCl4 etc.
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hannahc072
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(Original post by Pigster)
Or between non-polar molecules, e.g. CCl4 etc.
Pure covalent molecules are non-polar....
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richpanda
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(Original post by hannahc072)
Pure covalent molecules are non-polar....
water? not sure what you mean
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Pigster
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Water is not a symmetrical molecule, so the dipoles don't cancel out.

(yes it has one plane of mirror symmetry, but that isn't enough)
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Pigster
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(Original post by hannahc072)
Pure covalent molecules are non-polar....
I wasn't saying you were wrong, I was pointing out that there is another class of chemicals that you hadn't mentioned.
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hannahc072
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(Original post by richpanda)
water? not sure what you mean

water? water is polar covalent so a polar molecule
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hannahc072
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(Original post by Pigster)
I wasn't saying you were wrong, I was pointing out that there is another class of chemicals that you hadn't mentioned.
Oh I see, not all pure covalent molecules are non-polar - sorry
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Infraspecies
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(Original post by Pigster)
Water is not a symmetrical molecule, so the dipoles don't cancel out.

(yes it has one plane of mirror symmetry, but that isn't enough)
Two, even.
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Pigster
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Pah, you and your three dimensional world.

Leave me alone to my wine-based stupor.

T'is still not enough.
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