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    (Original post by Surfing Hamster)
    I did, I did! And I love the evolutionary approach
    i know you did and doesn't it rock? i loevd that entire section of unit 4 as well and i really think i might specialise in it a bit at uni

    lou xxx
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    Arghh!! Can anyone PLEASE help me with nature & nurture?!!?

    I understand what it is, and I have notes about the history and nature & nurture & intelligence. But I think I need another area (do i? ) and I can't find anything. Please help me!! :mad: :mad:
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    (Original post by eternalsunshine)
    Arghh!! Can anyone PLEASE help me with nature & nurture?!!?

    I understand what it is, and I have notes about the history and nature & nurture & intelligence. But I think I need another area (do i? ) and I can't find anything. Please help me!! :mad: :mad:
    You can explain about gender - for example, John Money and the boy who accidentally had his penis burnt off only to become "Brenda". Although nurturing throughout childhood as a girl, he/she still grew up feeling like a male. He changed back when he was older. Use this with the dutch scientists who found the sexually diamorphic nucleus and briefly comment on their success in identifying the different sizes of this in male/females and transvestites. You can also comment on h ow the parents of "Brenda" might have failed in the upbringing (as a girl), however.

    You can comment on Phenylketonuria (PKU) - a reaction to certain foods that can cause brain damage. This can be controlled by eating certain foods and a strict diet, suggesting it's a case of nature over nurture in some cases.

    Also, mention the diathesis stress model (i.e. we have a predisposition to mental disorders such as schizophrenia and eating disorders) - this is very synoptic as it brings in the AS abnormalities unit 2 and A2 criteria. Bring in Gorewood's 70% vulnerability component for eating disorders from Unit 2 as well to back this model up.

    Development of intelligence and IQ can be mentioned, too - the headstart programme in the US improved IQs of children in the short term suggesting nature can improve onces ability (phenotype), BUT only to a point where the genotype permits (i.e. their maximum potential).

    Hope this helps, I haven't revised this area yet so if there are any errors I'd appreciate the input!!
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    (Original post by lou p lou)
    i know you did and doesn't it rock? i loevd that entire section of unit 4 as well and i really think i might specialise in it a bit at uni

    lou xxx
    It does indeed! But I'll let you know just how much it rocks after Unit 5
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    (Original post by Surfing Hamster)
    You can explain about gender - for example, John Money and the boy who accidentally had his penis burnt off only to become "Brenda". Although nurturing throughout childhood as a girl, he/she still grew up feeling like a male. He changed back when he was older. Use this with the dutch scientists who found the sexually diamorphic nucleus and briefly comment on their success in identifying the different sizes of this in male/females and transvestites. You can also comment on h ow the parents of "Brenda" might have failed in the upbringing (as a girl), however.

    You can comment on Phenylketonuria (PKU) - a reaction to certain foods that can cause brain damage. This can be controlled by eating certain foods and a strict diet, suggesting it's a case of nature over nurture in some cases.

    Also, mention the diathesis stress model (i.e. we have a predisposition to mental disorders such as schizophrenia and eating disorders) - this is very synoptic as it brings in the AS abnormalities unit 2 and A2 criteria.

    Development of intelligence and IQ can be mentioned, too - the headstart programme in the US improved IQs of children in the short term suggesting nature can improve onces ability (phenotype), BUT only to a point where the genotype permits (i.e. their maximum potential).

    Hope this helps, I haven't revised this area yet so if there are any errors I'd appreciate the input!!
    Thankyou so much, that's really helpful!! That gender stuff was also really interesting & I totally did not know about it (slightly worrying seeing as I did gender for unit 4!!!)
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    please help
    in freewill/determinism if they say use 2 pychological theories can humanistic and psychoanalytic b used.
    my teacher taught that but a few lines long.
    im confused :confused:
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    here is an essay on schizophrenia.
    Attached Files
  1. File Type: doc SZ essay.doc (26.5 KB, 104 views)
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    (Original post by James_W)
    here is an essay on schizophrenia.
    What other topics r u doing James W? U seem to know your stuff really well and just wondered if u were doing the any of mine.

    Indvidual diffs-treatment of mental disorders
    Debates- Psych as a science, freewill vs deter, nature vs nuture
    Approches- Behavioural and Psychodynamic
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    (Original post by fivebyfive)
    What other topics r u doing James W? U seem to know your stuff really well and just wondered if u were doing the any of mine.

    Indvidual diffs-treatment of mental disorders
    Debates- Psych as a science, freewill vs deter, nature vs nuture
    Approches- Behavioural and Psychodynamic
    I'm doing those exact ones, except from Free will and determinism for the debates.
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    (Original post by Surfing Hamster)
    I'm doing those exact ones, except from Free will and determinism for the debates.
    Cool, if i get stuck on anything i will know where to go and if u want any help i will do my best.
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    (Original post by fivebyfive)
    Cool, if i get stuck on anything i will know where to go and if u want any help i will do my best.
    Sure! Do you have any model answers for Reductionism?
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    Infact - does anyone have model answers for:

    Freewill/Determinism
    Reductionism/Holism
    Nature/Nurture

    ??
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    (Original post by James_W)
    Infact - does anyone have model answers for:

    Freewill/Determinism
    Reductionism/Holism
    Nature/Nurture

    ??
    Yeah, my free will vs deter notes contain some good info, i pretty much made them 4 the exam, kinda a model answer. I can send them 2 u if u pm your e mail.
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    I was asked by PM for a model answer to an approaches question, here is one from one of Cardwell's own textbooks! I thought it would be more beneficial if I posted it here, that way it could benefit everyone and my fingers would hurt from typing it for a greater purpose


    The question: "For many years, people have been fascinated by horror in the cinema. This can be traced back to early films like Frankenstein and Invasion of the Body Snatchers, but the fascination is still obvious in more contemporary horror classics such as Nightmare on Elm Street and Scream. It seems that people love to be frightened, and the scarier the better.

    Standard a) b) c) d) questions.

    Answers:
    (Only one approach was used - Psychodynamic)
    a) Freud's psychoanalytic theory would explain people's fascination with horror films using the concept of ego defence mechanisms. Freud believed that each of us has repressed into our unconscious certain unacceptable sexual and violent tendencies, the expression of which is unacceptable in our society. Although these have been excluded from our conscous minds, they still exist subconsciously. Horror films help us cope with frightening characters in the film, dealing with them symbolically. THrough the defence mechanism of displacement, strong emotions that might originally have been directed towards another person or event (e.g. fear of death) can now be displaced onto symbolic aspects of the film. As good tends to overcome evil in most horror films, this would also gratify our superego - the moral component of our personality - as it overcomes our id impulses (represented by horror "monsters").

    b) The main idea behind this explanation (repression) is supported by evidence (e.g. Williams, 1994). The psychoanalytic explanation is able to explain why what frightens us may change over time. In the 1940s, the fascination of films such as Frankenstein could have been due to the widespread horror of bodily dismemberment associated with experiences of mutilation of the World Wars, whereas in the 1990s, people might have been more concerned with the possibility of alien invasion, so films such as Alien became more popular.
    The psychoanalytic explanation of out attraction for horror films can be criticised for not being falsifiable. It is difficult to generate hypothesis to test the proposed relationship between attraction for horror and defence mechanisms scientifically. Also, why are only some people fascinated by horror films if we all repress unacceptable impulses?
    This explanation is also reductionist, people's fascination for the whole genre of cinema being reduced to the simple interplay between id, ego and superego rather than taking into consideration a much wider set of social and cultural influences.

    c) The psychoanalytic approach might investigate people's fascination for horror films collectively (e.g. by examining horror films over the past 60 years to see if they represent the real fears and anxieties of people at a particualr time). In order to study this relationship at a more individual level, a psychoanalyst would employ the case study method, interviewing individuals with a fascination for horror films in an attempt to discover (by making the unconscious conscious) whether they were repressing an emotion that was being displaced onto that film. The psychanalyst could achieve this through free association (in which the individual might be prompted to talk about particular themes in the film) and dream interpretation, the psychanalyst accessing the unconscious by looking beyond the manifest content of the dream (e.g. abduction by aliens) to its latent content (e.g. fear of death). In this way, the psychoanalyst could explain the meaning of recalled information in conjunction with the patient and offer interpretations that might explain the link between unconscious fears and particular scenarios in horror films.

    d) Case studies procide rich details about an individual's life so are particularly suited to an investigation into how repressed emotions might be displaced onto horror films. Case studies are an idiographic approach, focusing on individual uniqueness, so the psychoanalyst is able to look at the relationship between particular repressed emotions in an individual's unconscious mind and draw specific associations concerning events in particular horror films.
    Evidence recorded in psychoanalytic case studies may be unreliable because the recall of past experiences may not be completely accurate. A memory 'uncovered' by the psychoanalyst may not be a real repressed memory, but a "false" one. This is an example of researcher bias - the person conducting the interview may have prior expectations about the link between a theme in a horror film and a possible repressed emotion and therefore influence the responses made during the interview. Any insights into the links between repressed emotions and horror film themes that emerge during a case study may not be generalisable to other people.

    Enjoy
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    Excellent ShadowStorm...! Thanks...
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    What mark did that question get (and what marks for which sections)?
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    Could someone explain to me (in human, not textbook terms) what the id, ego and superego do. I'm confused :confused:
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    Our personality structure is made up of 3 innate drives - id, ego, superego.

    The id = the inner child, demanding instant pleasure (so if you're walking down a street, and there is a mobile phone you see in a shop window - you smash the window and take it) - the id is in our unconscious.

    ego = our conscious mind (if you smash that window and take the phone, you will be taken in by the police and get a criminal record)

    superego = our conscience (Jimminy Cricket) that gives us a sense of right and wrong (stealing that phone and smashing the window is wrong, don't do it)

    So there are constant conflicts between the three (mainly the id and superego) on how to behave..
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    (Original post by James_W)
    Our personality structure is made up of 3 innate drives - id, ego, superego.

    The id = the inner child, demanding instant pleasure (so if you're walking down a street, and there is a mobile phone you see in a shop window - you smash the window and take it) - the id is in our unconscious.

    ego = our conscious mind (if you smash that window and take the phone, you will be taken in by the police and get a criminal record)

    superego = our conscience (Jimminy Cricket) that gives us a sense of right and wrong (stealing that phone and smashing the window is wrong, don't do it)

    So there are constant conflicts between the three (mainly the id and superego) on how to behave..
    Thanks
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    Heh heh .. jiminy cricket. Give a little whistle
    I'm not doing any pya5 revision today because I have another exam tmw.. Will just have to resort to cramming.
 
 
 
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