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    (Original post by lou p lou)
    i know you did and doesn't it rock? i loevd that entire section of unit 4 as well and i really think i might specialise in it a bit at uni

    lou xxx

    theres barely any scenarios u can relate it to, psychoanalytic, thas decent, u can apply that anywhere.
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    Is there much chance that nature vs nuture will come up in the debates, it has come up twice in a row? I gonna look over it but has the exam board eva put a debate up 3 times in a row?
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    (Original post by fivebyfive)
    Is there much chance that nature vs nuture will come up in the debates, it has come up twice in a row? I gonna look over it but has the exam board eva put a debate up 3 times in a row?
    It's reductionism that's come up twice in a row - and no, i dont think they've ever put anything up three times! If you were to focus on any two, I'd say look at Psychology as a science and Nature-Nurture. That is, of course, if you're not doing freewill, in which case I'd leave nature-nurture out.
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    (Original post by Surfing Hamster)
    It's reductionism that's come up twice in a row - and no, i dont think they've ever put anything up three times! If you were to focus on any two, I'd say look at Psychology as a science and Nature-Nurture. That is, of course, if you're not doing freewill, in which case I'd leave nature-nurture out.
    Cheers surfing hamster. Hoping 4 freewill vs deter.
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    (Original post by Surfing Hamster)
    What mark did that question get (and what marks for which sections)?
    Full marks. It's a model answer.
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    ShadowStorm: do you have any material for Section B which could be useful?

    I have 2 sets of notes, and 2 model essays for Psychopathology if that's of any use to you?
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    Section B = Issues & Debates?
    Which section are you interested in?
    I don't do psychopathology, I'm afraid, I do therapies - but a 'trade' isn't necessary
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    I'm doing debates: Freewill/Determinism is the one I'm focusing on the most!
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    any model answers on free will vs determinism would be fantastic so please could you post them to me too. cheers x
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    Sorry, I do Issues. Also, the only model answers I have for Issues, as I've just discovered also, are ones I wrote myself (teacher marked as 24-26 / 30).
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    in terms of treating mental disorders what do you think will coem up? Behaviuoral came up in jan so i do not think it will come up again ? i thinnk psychodynamic and cogntive will come up instead?
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    in terms of treating mental disorders what do you think will coem up? Behaviuoral came up in jan so i do not think it will come up again ? i thinnk psychodynamic and cogntive will come up instead?

    in terms of issues will the use of non human animals come up?
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    (Original post by med115)
    in terms of treating mental disorders what do you think will coem up? Behaviuoral came up in jan so i do not think it will come up again ? i thinnk psychodynamic and cogntive will come up instead?
    To be honest, anything could come up. There's the possibility that they might repeat last year's, bring psychodynamic in, or unearth biological from 2002. It's not worth taking the risk on this one.
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    Please mark this debates esay question.


    Freewill is defined as the belief that our behaviour is under our own control and we are not influenced by internal or external factors e.g. the Humanistic approach suggests that we have total resonsibility for our own actions.Free will occurs when an individual has a choice, not been coerced, its voluntary and has deliberate control.
    There is some psychologgical evidence that free will does exist. According to Maslow, we all strive for self actualisation, this is where we move towards free will. However its been found that maladaptive bahaviour results from low self esteem which prevents Maslows theory from happening, hence it doesn't work for all, i.e.he ignored individual differences.
    Also free will has been used as defence in murder cases, some people say that something out of their control has determined tham to murder. But the free will argument shows that behaviour is free and therefore they had control. However children and mentally ill people are not responsible for their behaviour and have determined behaviour.
    More research evidence comes from Penfield, he stimulated parts of the brain of patients about to have surgery, to make their limbs moved. He found that the patients felt different when there limbs moved without their control, when with control. It was a subjective feeling and therefore this subjective experience supports the idea that there is free will, as most people believe there is.
    There are applications to the humanistic approach, self centred counselling has been used to maximise peoples rewards in there lives and to exercise there free will. However there is no real proof that free will exists, as people might just be being determined, but they do not know this, as this determined behaviour is hidden, such as inherited genes. Also this free will is only important in individualistic cultures, not so important in collectivist cultures. On the other hand free will could just be behaviour that is determined by the mind.
    In contrast to free will, determinism is defined as the belief that our behaviour is controlled by internal and external stimuli e.g. the biological approach suggests that we are determined by only inherited genes or imbalanced chemicals.
    There are 4 kinds of determinism, biological, psychic, environmental and genetic. There is some psychological evidence for the determinism side of the debate. It mainly comes from the behaviourist approach, who say that our behaviour is determined by stimuli from the environment e.g. rewards and punishments recieved. We have no freedom to choose our own actions and just repeat behaviours that have reinforced us. This approach is an example of environmental determinism.
    According to Byrne who produced the Reinforcement Affect Theory, relationships are formed and maintained if the partner rewards the other partner, e.g. of operant conditioning. The Social Exchange theory suggests that our partner choice is determined by the amounts of rewards they give us. Both theories support the determinism debate, as its the rewards that determine the relationship, not free will. This approach has applications - behaviourism therapy.
    The above deterministic description was hard determinism, i.e. there is no element of free will in it. However soft determinism is where the behaviour has been influenced, but has free will also. Psychological evidence for this comes from the psychodynamic approach. This is an example of psychic determinism. Freud believed that we are controlled by unconscious forces e.g. repressed memories. Freuds personality theory suggests that adult behaviour is determined by early experiences. This gives support to the idea that some behaviour is determined, although there is little empirical support.
    Also its been based on case studies, that can not be generalised to others. As the psychodynamic approach is soft deterministic, there is some free will support also. Freud believed that dreams, lucid dreaming is controlled by the dreamer and therefore the dreamer used free will. Useful applications comes from this approach, psychoanalysis therapy unlocks unconsciousness . Maybe its not free will or determinism, acting on its own to control behaviour, but an eclectic approach.
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    Does anyone have an essays on Issues? Seriously lacking in this section.

    Thanks
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    Sorry. I would type up what I have, but it's my own and at the risk of sounding selfish, I've got these memorised for the exam and I don't want other people memorising them too.

    I can give you some pointers with the essays, though.
    I'll take Culture bias as a sample area.

    You will want to use a brief introduction to the issue, using research/a psychologist's name (e.g. Rosenberg (1992)'s findings about American research for Culture bias). Follow it up with supporting evidence from others (e.g. Amir & Sharon's study in Israel).
    Talk about individualism vs. collectivism. (e.g. Hofstede (1980)'s survey.) Conclude with an overview of research in the past. (e.g. Howitt & Owusu-Bempah.)
    Mention and explain Altruism & Pro-social behaviour (e.g. Kitty Genovese) across cultures. The strange situation is a good cross-cultural reference to use.
    Schitzophrenia and depression can be used as examples of how illness manifests across cultures, and you can go into some detail with CBSs.
    Finish with imposed etics and emic constructs. (e.g. Berry (1969), Cole et al. (1971))

    I hope that has helped you with a generic outline. You may have been taught different areas of culture bias to me, in which case use your own examples (which I suggest anyway).
    The best way of preparing for Issues, is to write a model essay, and memorise it. It really is a "parrot-fashion" unit. At this late stage in the game, do what I did, memorise 3 areas out of the 4. You may not get a choice, but at least that won't matter!
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    (Original post by Surfing Hamster)
    To be honest, anything could come up. There's the possibility that they might repeat last year's, bring psychodynamic in, or unearth biological from 2002. It's not worth taking the risk on this one.
    agreed, i was talking to my teacher today and he reckons they actually do do ti completely randomly and it's no ones 'choice' but it's pulled out a hat or something.

    lou xxx
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    I have no idea how good this is...

    Determinism vs. Freewill

    A long-standing debate in psychology is between the notion of determinism and the notion of freewill. If we are to believe in freewill, we must believe that we are free to choose our behaviour irrespective of external influences. The notion is not compatible with science, because it does not believe that all behaviour is caused and that future behaviour can be planned and controlled – but is rather unpredictable.

    On the other hand, determinism has a scientific basis in that our behaviour is controlled and caused by factors over which we have no control. It follows that all future events are entirely predictable, and aims to reveal laws to provide prediction and control of the future. Some psychologists cannot see freewill and determinism as separate concepts, such as Hume who put forward the concept of efficient causality whereby our behaviour is determined by our freewill.

    Determinism has been said to come as different types. Environmental determinism believes that our behaviour is the reinforcement provided by the environment. A behavioural psychologist would adopt this attitude towards our behaviour as seen in the Little Albert experiment conducted by Watson & Rayner. A phobic response was conditioned into a young child. Operant conditioning occurs through reinforcements of reward or punishment, when classical conditioning reinforces behaviour through our associations. Bandura used the idea of operant conditioning to explain his Social Learning Theory of aggression, whereby we learn to be aggressive based on vicarious reinforcement (watching a role model be rewarded for acting aggressively). Bandura also put forward the concept of reciprocal determination whereby our behaviour determines the environment, which in turn influences our behaviour. However, the basis of environmental determinism views us as passive recipients of our environment. Critiques also suggest that it is reductionist because it looks at our environment as the sole factor of our behaviour, whilst this may not be the case.

    The psychodynamic approach follows psychic determinism whereby our behaviour is based on unconscious factors of which we are unaware and have no control over. It follows that all events do not occur by chance, but that they are purposeful. Freud was the creator of this approach and suggested our innate drives and early childhood experiences govern our current behaviour, and behaviour that is likely to occur in the future. To explain aggression, he says that Thanatos (our death instinct) seeks our own self destructive, and so we displace aggression on to others in order prevent harm to ourselves. Our personality type is determined by our personality structure and the conflicts that arise between the ego, id, and superego, which create ego defences. Equally, the ways we pass through psychosexual stages off development are also a key issue because, for example, fixations occurring in the anal stage can result in an anal-retentive personality type. Skinner has described the psychodynamic approach as “unscientific mentalism” because it is non-falsifiable, meaning that it can’t be proved to be true. The issue of eating disorders, for example, places responsibility onto the caregiver because it is determined by childhood sexual abuse. There is a social issue here, because this label can lead to destruction of families.

    We may also be determined by internal factors. Physiological determinism would argue that raised dopamine levels in our cortex determine schizophrenia, or that dreaming occurs because of a random firing of neurons in the brains cortex. Endocrinology (hormones) has been said to be the cause of depression, which was proved in women during phases of post-natal and premenstrual.

    These theories to not credit freewill to play any role, something that would be challenged by the Humanistic approach which believes in freewill. It states that humans are free to control their own behaviour and indeed destiny, emphasising the person’s current feelings rather than past experiences. It criticises all determinist theories for not understanding the capacity and complexity of human nature, and claims that all determinist theories are reductionist because it reduces this complexity to simple principles. All individuals are unique and determinism plays a very small role in our behaviour. This notion is stressed by Carl Rogers who was the founder of client centred therapy, and also Maslow who conducted studies into human motivation, stating that self-actualisation is our ultimate goal. Jahoda defined abnormality as ‘a deviation from ideal mental health’, which focuses on the positives of abnormality, and the need to self-actualise to become a fully functioning person to reach ideal mental health.

    In an attempt to bridge the gap between freewill and determinism, James (1890) proposed soft determinism. We have the freewill to make the choice, but it is always subject to external constraint of some form. Similarly, Stevens believes that we are both autonomous and determined. We are determined by forces outside of our control, yet able to manipulate those factors to our potential benefit
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    24 hours away!
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    Anyone got any ideas of what issues will come up? Im thinking culture (which we havent done) and SSR (which i love).
    Also what about psychopathology? SZ? Depression? I doubt it will be phobias again.
 
 
 
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