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PYA5 Free will Debates essay answer - please mark watch

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    Hiya, please could someone mark this essay on free will and determinism. Its out of 30 marks, 15 AO1 and 15 AO2. Thanks!

    Question - Describe and evalutae 2 or more research studies on free will and determinism.



    Freewill is defined as the belief that our behaviour is under our own control and we are not influenced by internal or external factors e.g. the Humanistic approach suggests that we have total resonsibility for our own actions.Free will occurs when an individual has a choice, not been coerced, its voluntary and has deliberate control.
    There is some psychologgical evidence that free will does exist. According to Maslow, we all strive for self actualisation, this is where we move towards free will. However its been found that maladaptive bahaviour results from low self esteem which prevents Maslows theory from happening, hence it doesn't work for all, i.e.he ignored individual differences.
    Also free will has been used as defence in murder cases, some people say that something out of their control has determined tham to murder. But the free will argument shows that behaviour is free and therefore they had control. However children and mentally ill people are not responsible for their behaviour and have determined behaviour.
    More research evidence comes from Penfield, he stimulated parts of the brain of patients about to have surgery, to make their limbs moved. He found that the patients felt different when there limbs moved without their control, when with control. It was a subjective feeling and therefore this subjective experience supports the idea that there is free will, as most people believe there is.
    There are applications to the humanistic approach, self centred counselling has been used to maximise peoples rewards in there lives and to exercise there free will. However there is no real proof that free will exists, as people might just be being determined, but they do not know this, as this determined behaviour is hidden, such as inherited genes. Also this free will is only important in individualistic cultures, not so important in collectivist cultures. On the other hand free will could just be behaviour that is determined by the mind.
    In contrast to free will, determinism is defined as the belief that our behaviour is controlled by internal and external stimuli e.g. the biological approach suggests that we are determined by only inherited genes or imbalanced chemicals.
    There are 4 kinds of determinism, biological, psychic, environmental and genetic. There is some psychological evidence for the determinism side of the debate. It mainly comes from the behaviourist approach, who say that our behaviour is determined by stimuli from the environment e.g. rewards and punishments recieved. We have no freedom to choose our own actions and just repeat behaviours that have reinforced us. This approach is an example of environmental determinism.
    According to Byrne who produced the Reinforcement Affect Theory, relationships are formed and maintained if the partner rewards the other partner, e.g. of operant conditioning. The Social Exchange theory suggests that our partner choice is determined by the amounts of rewards they give us. Both theories support the determinism debate, as its the rewards that determine the relationship, not free will. This approach has applications - behaviourism therapy.
    The above deterministic description was hard determinism, i.e. there is no element of free will in it. However soft determinism is where the behaviour has been influenced, but has free will also. Psychological evidence for this comes from the psychodynamic approach. This is an example of psychic determinism. Freud believed that we are controlled by unconscious forces e.g. repressed memories. Freuds personality theory suggests that adult behaviour is determined by early experiences. This gives support to the idea that some behaviour is determined, although there is little empirical support.
    Also its been based on case studies, that can not be generalised to others. As the psychodynamic approach is soft deterministic, there is some free will support also. Freud believed that dreams, lucid dreaming is controlled by the dreamer and therefore the dreamer used free will. Useful applications comes from this approach, psychoanalysis therapy unlocks unconsciousness . Maybe its not free will or determinism, acting on its own to control behaviour, but an eclectic approach.
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    Anyone please
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    I dont do this question but when i do ones for ethics and gender etc I tend to use more studies from every topic on the As and A2 syllabus.... maybe you could use more studies? Also is it long enough? you have about 40 mins to do it so that going to be like 4 sides... maybe you could add more. But as i say i dont do that topic so i could be wrong
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    (Original post by cool_guy769)
    I dont do this question but when i do ones for ethics and gender etc I tend to use more studies from every topic on the As and A2 syllabus.... maybe you could use more studies? Also is it long enough? you have about 40 mins to do it so that going to be like 4 sides... maybe you could add more. But as i say i dont do that topic so i could be wrong

    4 sides, oh my god :eek:

    I can only write 2 sides of A4 in 40 minutes, I have had A's from them.
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    In PYA4 it was taking me 10 mins to write a page.
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    (Original post by BlueAngel)
    4 sides, oh my god :eek:

    I can only write 2 sides of A4 in 40 minutes, I have had A's from them.
    lol depends how big ur writing is mines small so i only write 3 normally but everyone esle seems to write 4.... also these essays are meant to be longer than the ones for pya 4 because you get 40 mins instead of 30.
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    (Original post by James_W)
    In PYA4 it was taking me 10 mins to write a page.
    takes me about 15 but there is loads more you can write for this, well i think there is. You can go into more depth too.
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    don't stress about writing loads of pages! it is the detail that you include in your essay- making sure you include plenty of AO1 detail and AO2 analysis. Even though we have 40 minutes it doesn't necessarily mean it has to be longer. I generally write about 2/3 sides of paper and i got 100% for AS.
 
 
 
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