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    I will be posting answers to past paper questions for this unit. I'll also have one for the A2 exam. Feel free to ask questions and share your notes etc. Predictions shall be discussed near to the exam. All constructive criticisms of my answers are welcome.

    "Explain the process by which by the Surahs were collected and the Qur'an compiled" (25 marks)

    1. The first revelation came to Mohammad when he was 40 years old whilst in seclusion in the Cave of Hira' on Munt Nur outside Makkah where he used to worship Allah continuously for many days.
    2. It was one of the odd nights during the last ten days of the month of Ramadan known as Laila al-Qadr.
    3. The 1st revelation came to Muhammad in 610CE and continued until just before His death in 632CE
    4. According to the reports recorded in the authentic Hadith literature, the angle Jibril appeared before the perplexed Mohammad and said to him: “Iqra’” (Read or Recite).
    5. Mohammad replied that he could not recite (was illiterate). After the instructions to read/recite were repeated 2 more times, Mohammad reports that the angel held him and squeezed him so tightly that he felt that his breath was leaving his body. Jibril then instructed him to recite with him the words that are now recorded as the first 5 Ayahs of the 96th Surah Al-Qalam, (The Pen) of the Qur’an.
    6. An interval of several months passes after the above revelation. The Prophet is wrapped up in a blanket, feeling despondent and afraid of having been removed by God from his mission. This is when the revelation of Ayahs 1 through 7 of the 74th Surah Al-Moddaththir, (The One Wrapped), occurs
    7. Further revelations come over the remaining 13 years of the Prophet’s life in Makkah and 10 years in Medina.
    8. After every revelation, the Prophet would come out to the public and recite to the people the new verses and got his followers to learn the revelation by rote (memory).
    9. At a later stage, He appointed scribes to write them down.
    10. He would tell them where the new revelation was to be positioned in relationship to previous revelations. He would also check them to make sure they were exactly what God said.
    11. The scribes would write on whatever material was available at the moment. Thus the writing medium ranged from a stone, the leaf of a palm tree, scraps of paper, leather, bone and pottery.
    12. The Makkans, being a merchant society, had a large pool of those who could read and write. There were as many as 11 scribes during the early part of the Madinan period also. The most prominent of these was an elderly gentleman, named Ubayy ibn Ka`b.
    13. The Prophet was then introduced to an energetic teenager named Zayd ibn Thabit. He was eager to learn and was made the principal scribe, organizer, and keeper of the record.
    14. Hundreds of people memorized the Qur’an and many wrote what they learned.
    15. Keeping up with the new revelations + the changing arrangement of the Ayahs in Surahs = difficult.
    16. To keep up, hundreds regularly reviewed the Qur’an they knew. Many did this under the Prophet’s own guidance. Others did it under the supervision of teachers designated by the Prophet.
    17. Those from remote areas, who had visited once, or occasionally, may not have kept up.
    18. The Prophet was meticulous about the integrity of the Qur’an. He constantly recited, in public, the Surahs as they were arranged at the time.
    19. It is reported that angel Jibreel (Gabriel) reviewed entire Qur’an with the Prophet once a year during the month of Ramadan. This review was done twice during the last year of the Prophet’s life.
    20. In 631 CE, however, Muhammad sorted the revelations into Surahs (some by date and some by theme) but died before the 114 were sorted into chronological order.
    21. At the time of the Prophet’s death, Zayd had a complete record of all revelations except the last two Ayahs of Surah 9, Al Taubah. The Prophet used to indicate the completion + beginning of a Surah using Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Rahim = “In the name of God, The Most Merciful, The Most Compassionate”
    22. This formulation is missing from the 9th Surah, indicating that no one wanted to add anything to the Qur’an that the Prophet had himself not ordered, even if seemed logical to do so.
    23. After the Prophet’s death, the community chose Abu Bakr as their temporal chief, the Khalifah of the Messenger. (1st Caliph).
    24. About a year later, a large number of those known as authoritative memorizers were killed in a battle. According to authentic Hadith literature, Umar was alarmed by this and concerned that the next generation may not have enough teachers of the Qur’an. He therefore approached Abu Bakr, and suggested that a formal compilation of the Qur’an be prepared on materials that would be convenient to store, maintained, and used as a reference.
    25. Both Abu Bakr and Zayd were reluctant at first but then became inclined to do this as it was true that certain verses of the Qur’an were superseding others (i.e.: verses saying prostration must be towards Mecca + others saying in any direction).
    26. By the time of the 3rd Caliph, ‘Uthman ibn `Affan, the Muslim population had spread over vast areas outside the core Arab regions and many people of other cultures were entering Islam. About 15 years after the first compilation, it was suggested that authenticated copies of the Qur’an be made available to all those areas.
    27. Zayd thus formed another committee. Instead of just making copies of the existing text, they decided to seek corroboration of each Ayah in the earlier compilation.
    28. In 652CE, an official copy of the Qur’an was made which was kept with Hafsa. All other copies were destroyed
    29. Over the ages, the Qur’an has been translated in dozens of languages throughout the world, but only the Arabic text is considered the authentic Qur’an.
    30. The Qur’an is organized in 114 chapters called Surahs which contain ayahs (verses) of various lengths. More than three-quarters (86 out of 114) of the Surahs were revealed during the 13 years of the Prophet’s mission in Makkah; the remaining 28 were revealed during the entire 10 years of his life in Madinah.
    31. For convenience of reading the book in a month, it is divided into 30 equal parts (each called a Juz’), and for reading it in a week, it is divided into 7 parts (called a Manzil).
    32. By the time of his death, the revelations are composed of 114 Surahs. The last of these is Surah is Al Taubah, now numbered 9th. But the last words of the revelation are said to be in the third Ayah of Surah 5, Al Ma’idah.
    33. The compilation is not in chronological order and the Surahs in the Qur’an are arranged according to length except Surah 1.
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    This looks really helpful, thanks for taking the time to write up! I do AQA though.
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    (Original post by Black Rose)
    This looks really helpful, thanks for taking the time to write up! I do AQA though.
    No problem - i think some of our topics are the same? Let me know if I can help with anything none the less
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    The differences in the Surahs revealed at Makkah and those atal-Madinah
    1. At Makkah Islam was mainly concerned with the propagation of its fundamental principles. But after the migration of Muhammad to Al-Madinah (the Hijrah), whereMuslims had come to settle from all over Arabia and where a tiny Islamic Statehad been set up, naturally the Qur’an had to turn its attention to the social,cultural, economic, political and legal problems as well.
    2. This accounts for the difference between the themes of the surahsrevealed at Makkah and those at Al-Madinah.
    3. Makkan revelations
    Tawhid
    Salah - stresswas placed on Salah because of its relationship to Tawhid.Correct Salah directed to Allah alone is the most basic way of putting Tawhid into practice.
    The Unseen - verses described Paradise and its pleasures in order to encourage the believers to continue to do good deeds. Also described the Hell-fire and to encourage the believers tostrive to avoid evil deeds. Description of the fire reassured the believersthat those who do wrong in this life will not escape Allah’s punishment. ·
    Allah’s Existence – seen in the creativity of Allah (the creation on planets etc. and how intricate they are)· Challenges - in order to prove to the Quraysh that the Qur’an was from Allah and that Muhammad was a Prophet some of the Makkan verses challenged the Arabs to imitate the Qur’an- miraculous nature of the Qur’an and its divine origin not reproducible
    The People of Old - Makkan verses often mentioned historical examples of earlier civilizations + recounted how the people disobeyed Allah and denied His blessings
    Imaan - verses spoke of the importance of fearing Allah and being aware of His presence and knowledge of all things. They were often filled with advice about beingpatient, perseverant, truthful and trustworthy, in order to build the moralspiritual character
    Short Verses - Makkan Surahs usually had short verses, catchy rhymes, and a very strong rhythm. These qualities were meant to catch the attention of listeners who were basically opposed to the message of Islam.The verses had to be short because the audience would not be willing to listen to long, drawn-out statements
    4. The Madinan phase lasted about 10 years, from the Hijrah to the death ofthe Prophet (pbuh).
    5. In Madinah, there are four groups of people to be met: The Muhajirun (immigrants), who migrated from Makkah to Madinahs,The Ansar (helpers), who originated from Madinah and helped the Muhajiruns The munafiqun (hypocrites), who are from Madinah and pretended to support the Muslims§ The Ahl Al-Kitab (People of the Book), that is, Jews and Christians,with their respective scriptures
    6. In addition to these the Qur’an also continued to address an-nas (mankind),that is, all people, and referred to the disbelievers and ignorant ones.
    7. MADEENAN REVELATIONS·
    Laws - social, economic and spiritual laws like zakaah, Sawm, and Hajj were revealed. Likewise, it was during this period that drinking alcohol, eatingswine, and gambling were all forbidden.·
    People of the Book
    The Munafiqoon·
    Jihaad - The right to fight against the enemy was given for the first time.
    Long Verses - need to catch the attention of unwilling listeners was no longer there because Islam had become strong and its followers were many. Thus, the audience at this stage was quite willing to listen attentively to longer verses teaching the vital laws of Islam.
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    Hi, I was wondering if anyone has any tips of scholars/evidence that they use to back up their points since it states in the mark scheme that you need a range of evidence.

    I have the obvious Quran/Hadith quotes but was wondering if anyone would be willing to share anything else.

    Thank you!
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    Thanks this is a real big help, btw lol that dp XD
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    Sorry for not being able to post all my other notes. Here are some I made on pilgrimages. Haven't double checked these ones so excuse the grammar and silly typos. I will post the A2 notes soon once this AS exam is over - PROMISE!
    Pillar 1: Shahada
    1. First pillar of Islam which a ‘non-action’pillar as it a declaration of faith (imaan).
    2. Purpose = develops Taqwa = (beingconscious & cognizant of Allah) amongst others pointed below like believingin no one but Allah and Muhammed is he last Messenger.
    3. Transliteration: La ilaha illa-llah,Muhammadu-rasulu-llah
    4. Translation:There is no Allah but Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah
    5. This declaration sums up all one has to believein order to be a Muslim – which is the unity of God and the Prophethood ofMuhammed.
    6. From these 2 beliefs, all other beliefs are derived like the unity of creation + humanity, the vice-regency of humans,angels, prophets, holy books.
    7. If you accept Muhammed as the messenger of God then you accept the Qur’an as the word of God + the Sunnah of Mohammed as the path to follow.
    8. That is why repeating the shahada 3 times in front of witnesses is sufficient to admit a person as a revert to Islam and no ceremonies are involved to be recognised as a Muslim. The bond of faith is much stronger than the bond of blood. When a person becomes a Muslim they enter the community of Muslims, regardless of their raceor background. A feeling of love and harmony abides between people whosincerely seek to practice Islam according to the Qur’an and Sunnah.
    9. The shahada highlights that Islam rejects bothpolytheism + trinitarianism – there if no God but Allah. It reminds Muslimsthat there is no way that Muhammed can be regarded on a par with God = Islam is not like Christianity where Jesus is regarded as God for Muhammed is only a Prophet.
    10. When we say there is no god worthy of worship except Allah, it means that we disdain obedience and servitude to anyone or anything except Allah. It means that we fear no one and nothing except Allah: that our greatest feeling of love and gratitude are kept for Allah, because we know that He is the real Provider of all we have. It means that we do not seek the pleasure or acceptance of anyone or anything except Allah. This means that the Muslim becomes strong and independent. The Muslim remains calm and secure in times of panic because they know that there is no help except from Allah. In times of grief and distress, the Muslim remains steadfast and courageous, knowing that calamity can only occur with the permission of Allah and that He, in His Mercy has promised not to bear a sincere soul, with more than it can bear.
    11. When we say that Muhammad is the Prophet of Allah, we acknowledge his right to be respected,obeyed and revered. We follow in his footsteps, knowing that he was the best of creation and hope to achieve Paradise and be close to him and the other prophets.
    12. The Shahada is repeated many times a day in the prayer ritual. They are announced 5 times a day from the minaret of the mosque signalling the call to prayer.
    13. Muslim fathers are expected to whisper the words into the ear of their newborn child = first words the child hears + faithful Muslims who know they’re about to die try to make these words their last breath.
    14. Muslim soldiers go into battle with these wordsalways in their lips.
    15. If a person has knowledge of and certainty in the shahada, this must be followed by acceptance, with the tongue and heart, of whatever that shahada implies.Whoever refuses to accept the shahada and its implications, even if he knows that it is true and certain about its truth, then he is a disbeliever. This refusal to accept is sometimes due to pride, envy or other reasons. In any case, the shahada is not a true shahada without its unconditional acceptance.
    16. Truly the Shahadah is not an empty phrase, it is not just a few words spoken but is coupled with sincerity of intention and determination to struggle, strive and sacrifice along the straight path.
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    Brief notes on Shirk.
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    Brief notes on Tawhid
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    Predictions for 2016:
    . A question which encompasses all of the 5 pillars or one just one either Sawm, Hajj or Shahadah.
    . The revelation of the Qu'ran. The status of the Qur'an COULD come up though unlikely.
    . Pre-Islamic Arabia is due. Whether that is the social, geographical or religious background I don't know but it definitely is due.


    These are just my humble predictions. I may be completely wrong. Let me know what you guys think. Also, anybody with notes on Muhammad (pbuh) and Islamic beliefs about human rights and responsibilities and human responsibility to Allah or Beliefs about Allah and human relationships, kindly share them as it will be of help
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    which book did you use for this and Alevels one?
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    (Original post by geek999)
    Predictions for 2016:
    . A question which encompasses all of the 5 pillars or one just one either Sawm, Hajj or Shahadah.
    . The revelation of the Qu'ran. The status of the Qur'an COULD come up though unlikely.
    . Pre-Islamic Arabia is due. Whether that is the social, geographical or religious background I don't know but it definitely is due.


    These are just my humble predictions. I may be completely wrong. Let me know what you guys think. Also, anybody with notes on Muhammad (pbuh) and Islamic beliefs about human rights and responsibilities and human responsibility to Allah or Beliefs about Allah and human relationships, kindly share them as it will be of help
    hey your notes are really helpful, could you please tell me where you got your information from, and which book you used?
    it would be really helpful thank you
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    Hi,
    I used the "A student's approach to world religions: Islam" by Victor W. Watton book. It's yellow. I've included a pic below
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    (Original post by aruob)
    hey your notes are really helpful, could you please tell me where you got your information from, and which book you used?
    it would be really helpful thank you
    btw, I also used random sources from online since the book doesn't cover everything but it gives you a good start. Try use your teacher's sources, this book and online research in conjunction. All the best
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    (Original post by geek999)
    btw, I also used random sources from online since the book doesn't cover everything but it gives you a good start. Try use your teacher's sources, this book and online research in conjunction. All the best
    .
    .
    .
    thank you,
    you mean teaches guide to religious studies?
    ive tried ... but does not seem like much information there.
    ill see to it again. thank you, might as well get on with the book now
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    (Original post by aruob)
    .
    .
    .
    thank you,
    you mean teaches guide to religious studies?
    ive tried ... but does not seem like much information there.
    ill see to it again. thank you, might as well get on with the book now
    Your teacher should have notes they make for their students to use. The book does help a lot. If you start not only making notes but revising them using just the book and online sources then you should be fine. all the best!
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    (Original post by geek999)
    Your teacher should have notes they make for their students to use. The book does help a lot. If you start not only making notes but revising them using just the book and online sources then you should be fine. all the best!
    Oh no im a private candidate,
    its ok thank you loads for your help.
 
 
 
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