moneymania999
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Which endocrine glands work together?
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Jpw1097
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(Original post by moneymania999)
Which endocrine glands work together?
Researched this but cannot find any answers
Endocrine glands are glands which secrete a hormone into the bloodstream. Exocrine glands are glands which secrete substances onto an epithelial surface via ducts.

Examples of endocrine glands include the pituitary gland (both the anterior and posterior), the thyroid gland, the pancreas, the thymus, adrenal glands, testes (in males) and ovaries (in females). As you can see there are lots of endocrine glands, I have only listed a few, and there is too many answers to your question as many endocrine glands interact with one another.

One example is the thyroid and the anterior pituitary gland. The hypothalamus secretes thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) into the hypophyseal portal vein which then travels in the bloodstream to the anterior pituitary gland, causing it to release thyrotropin into the bloodstream. Thyrotropin then travels in the bloodstream to the thyroid gland (in the neck) where it stimulates the thyroid gland to release thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) into the bloodtsream. These hormones affect the metabolic rate of cells as they enter cells and go to the nucleus where they activate transcription factors which turn on the genes which code for mitochondria and other respiratory enzymes, increasing the rate of transcription of these genes.

Another example is spermatogenesis. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) released by the anterior pituitary gland travels in the bloodstream and goes to Sertoli cells found in seminiferous tubules in the testes where they stimulate these Sertoli cells to secrete androgen-binding protein (ABP) which increases the concentration of testosterone in the tubules and promotes spermatogenesis (the production of sperm). Luteinizing hormone (LH) or sometimes called interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH) in males is also released by the anterior pituitary and goes to Leydig cells found in the interstitial space between seminiferous tubules where it stimulates the Leydig cells to produced testosterone.

I have only explained two examples of the way endocrine glands work together and there are many more. Hopefully this gives you an idea of the complexity and the ways that different endocrine glands interact.
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moneymania999
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(Original post by Jpw1097)
Endocrine glands are glands which secrete a hormone into the bloodstream. Exocrine glands are glands which secrete substances onto an epithelial surface via ducts.

Examples of endocrine glands include the pituitary gland (both the anterior and posterior), the thyroid gland, the pancreas, the thymus, adrenal glands, testes (in males) and ovaries (in females). As you can see there are lots of endocrine glands, I have only listed a few, and there is too many answers to your question as many endocrine glands interact with one another.

One example is the thyroid and the anterior pituitary gland. The hypothalamus secretes thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) into the hypophyseal portal vein which then travels in the bloodstream to the anterior pituitary gland, causing it to release thyrotropin into the bloodstream. Thyrotropin then travels in the bloodstream to the thyroid gland (in the neck) where it stimulates the thyroid gland to release thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) into the bloodtsream. These hormones affect the metabolic rate of cells as they enter cells and go to the nucleus where they activate transcription factors which turn on the genes which code for mitochondria and other respiratory enzymes, increasing the rate of transcription of these genes.

Another example is spermatogenesis. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) released by the anterior pituitary gland travels in the bloodstream and goes to Sertoli cells found in seminiferous tubules in the testes where they stimulate these Sertoli cells to secrete androgen-binding protein (ABP) which increases the concentration of testosterone in the tubules and promotes spermatogenesis (the production of sperm). Luteinizing hormone (LH) or sometimes called interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH) in males is also released by the anterior pituitary and goes to Leydig cells found in the interstitial space between seminiferous tubules where it stimulates the Leydig cells to produced testosterone.

I have only explained two examples of the way endocrine glands work together and there are many more. Hopefully this gives you an idea of the complexity and the ways that different endocrine glands interact.
Many thanks for this answer, sorry I didn't make it clear but for example how does the hypothalamus and gonads work together?
thanks in advance
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Jpw1097
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(Original post by moneymania999)
Many thanks for this answer, sorry I didn't make it clear but for example how does the hypothalamus and gonads work together?
thanks in advance
Well, I already talked about spermatogenesis. The hypothalamus secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) which then travels to the anterior pituitary gland via the hypophyseal portal vein where it stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to release FSH and LH (or ICSH in males). These hormones then travel in the bloodstream to the gonads. In females, FSH stimulates maturation of ovarian follicles, causing the granulosa cells surrounding the follicle to proliferate. LH stimulates theca cells present in the follicle to produce androstenedione which is then used by the granulosa cells (along with an enzyme known as aromatase) to produce oestrogen. At low levels, oestrogen inhibits the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary and also GnRH from the hypothalamus via negative feedback mechanisms however, at high concentrations, oestrogen actually positively feeds back on the anterior pituitary, causing it to release more FSH and LH. This is what causes the 'LH surge' which brings about ovulation.
In males, FSH stimulates Sertoli cells to produce ABP which increases concentration of testosterone which increases the rate of spermatogenesis as testosterone is needed to produce sperm. Sertoli cells also release inhibin, a hormone which inhibits the release of FSH from the anterior pituitary. So as levels of FSH increase, so does the activity of Sertoli cells which release more inhibin which reduces FSH from anterior pituitary. As you can see this is a negative feedback mechanism. LH stimulates Leydig cells to produce testosterone which is needed for spermatogenesis. High testosterone levels actually inhibit the release of LH from the anterior pituitary and also GnRH from the hypothalamus, which in turn reduces LH release which in turn means less testosterone is produced - once again, this is negative feedback.

Hopefully that answers your question.
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