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AQA A2 Psychology PSYA3/PSYA4 Revision Thread 2016 Watch

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    Could anyone help me with the way in which theories about the nature of relationships in others cultures are a limited view?


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    Is it likely that AQA will ask about the same approach for more than one topic e.g evolutionary explanations of group display for aggression and evolutionary explanations of gender role?


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    (Original post by Marli-Ruth)
    Ok so just to be sure is IDA (Issues,Debates And Approaches) of the actual theory in question or IDA of the research supporting/disproving the theory? And is this just:
    Gender Bias
    Reductionism/Limited View
    Ethical Issues
    Nature vs Nurture
    Animal studies
    Deterministic
    Ethnocentric (cultures/imposed etics)


    Also are people doing there IDA at the end of the essay or throughout?
    Hi, I was always told that it's more effective if you include small points about IDA throughout the essay which are more specific, rather than in one big paragraph at the end.
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    (Original post by Can't think name)
    Is there a difference between nature of sleep n lifespan and nature of sleep essays?
    Also what do points would u make for a 24 marks essay in roles of endogenous pacemakers n exogenous zeitgabers?
    Plz help 😁😁😁
    Hope this helps!

    Discuss the role of endogenous pacemakers and exogenous zeitgebers in the control of circadian rhythms (8+16 marks):
    In humans the main endogenous pacemaker (EP) is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) which is located in the optic chiasm in the hypothalamus of the brain. Through interaction with exogenous zeitgebers (EZ), the SCN controls circadian rhythms such as the sleep-wake cycle. Circadian rhythms occur once every 24 hours, and lightis an important zeitgeber in controlling the sleep-wake cycle. There is a direct pathway which links the SCN is to the retina of the eye which allows light input to regulate activity of the SCN. When the SCN detects less light, it stimulates increased production of of cortisol and melatonin in the pineal gland which causes us the feel sleepy. Whereas if more light is detected by the SCN, then secretion decreases in order to keep us awake. Therefore, internal and external influences interact in order to keep our body to an approximately 24 hour sleep-wake cycle.

    There is much research on non-human animals supporting the role of the SCN in controlling circadian rhythms. Stephan and Zucker (1972) found that damage to the SCN eliminated normal circadian pattern of drinking and activity in rats. This therefore evidences the SCN as one of the key pacemakers in mammals controlling circadian rhythms, and that it determines these cycles. Furthermore it could also be said that endogenous control of circadian rhythms has adaptive advantages. This is supported by DeCoursey (1998) who removed the SCN in 30 chipmunks and returned them to their natural habitat. After 80 days it was noted that significantly more chipmunks without their SCN had died, compared to a control group who retained their EP. Thus this implies that the SCN aids survival by maintaining circadian rhythms alongside environmental cues e.g. going to sleep when predators are awake. However limited control over confounding variables means research does not show cause and effect, with there possibly being other factors which contributed to the chipmunks death.

    Such research involving non-human animals has provided a great deal of insight into endogenous pacemakers and circadian rhythms. However there is much debate surrounding the ethics of such experiments, due to the manipulation of the SCN in this research. Additionally non-human animals have a different genome to humans, meaning extrapolation of findings surrounding endogenous control over circadian rhythms to humans should be treated with caution.

    Though, research on humans which has investigated the role of EP’s in isolation from EZ’s has also provided evidence for the role of EP’s in controlling circadian rhythms. Siffre (1975) spent six months in an underground cave where there was no natural light, and thus his circadian rhythms became free running. Findings showed that initially, Siffre's sleep pattern was erratic, but eventually his sleep-waking circadian rhythm settled down to a regular pattern of 25-30 hours. Therefore this lengthening of Siffre's circadian rhythms supports endogenous control, but also evidences the importance of interaction with light in order to fine tune the sleep-we cycle to a 24-hour cycle. Additionally the lengthening of Siffre’s sleep-wake cycle also resulted in it becoming desynchronised with his body temperature circadian rhythm, which extended slightly to 25 hours. This evidences that there must be at least two independent EP’s regulating various circadian rhythms. This was furthered by Hawkins (1978) who noted that nurses on shift duty were able to adjust their sleep-wake cycle quicker than their body temperature cycle, therefore supporting the existence of separate EP’s in the control of circadian rhythms.


    But there are numerous methodological issues with Siffre’s study, including the fact that he was not isolated from artificial light, as at the time of his research it was thought that dim light would not affect the circadian rhythm. However Campbell & Murphy (1998) challenged this after shining bright lights onto the backs of participants knees and discovering that they were able to alter their circadian rhythms in line with the light exposure. This shows that blood chemistry can be altered by light detected by the SCN, which evidences light as being an important EZ which interacts with the SCN to regulate circadian rhythms. Thus the exposure to artificial light may have confounded the results from Siffre's research and weakened their validity. This also means that it would be deterministic to assume that our circadian cycles are solely determined by EP’s as research into non-human animals suggests, due to the fact that as humans are able to adapt to rhythms depending on our surroundings, unlike mammals who are lower on the phylogenetic scale e.g. we can make ourselves stay awake by using artificial lighting. Therefore we are able to override the control our EP’s have over the sleep-wake cycle.


    Other research has evidenced light as an important EZ in keeping circadian rhythms synchronised with the environment. Miles et al (1977) noted that a man blind from birth had a circadian rhythm of 24.9 hours. This suggests that light is the main EZ which is important in reducing the natural 25 hour rhythm to the standard 24 hour one, through interaction with the SCN. This also contradicts the view that EP’s aid survival, as having a natural 25 hour circadian rhythm would not be evolutionarily adaptive in humans. Therefore it would be reductionist to state that circadian rhythms are solely controlled endogenously. Further studies have also shown that cultural factors can have an important influence over circadian rhythms. For example, Eskimos often live in permanent daylight or permanent night-time, but still maintain regular daily sleep cycles. This suggests that social factors can also influence the sleep-wake cycle, implying that light acting on the pineal gland is not the only EZ influencing circadian rhythms.

    Individual differences can also affect circadian rhythms, meaning generalisation of findings from case studies such as Siffre's should be treated with caution. This was evidenced by Aschoff and Wever (1976) who found that in a group of people isolated from daylight, some maintained their regular sleep-waking cycles, whereas other members of the group displayed their own very extreme idiosyncrasies, e.g. 29 hours awake followed by 21 hours asleep. This again evidences that other factors must interact to control or influence circadian rhythms. Such individual differences can include the fact that sleep cycle lengths can vary between individuals from anywhere between 13 to 65 hours, with Duffy et al (2000) noting that this differs between larks and owls. Therefore such individual differences need to be taken into account when considering research into circadian rhythms, and when attempting to explain how they are controlled.

    Research into circadian rhythms has also had various practical applications in areas such as chronotherapeutics. This is due to studies showing how circadian rhythms affect digestion, heart rate and hormone secretion, and thus has led to increased knowledge of when during the day is the most effective time to take certain drug treatments which act upon these factors.

    Overall, research into circadian rhythms has been highly useful in evidencing that a more holistic approach to explaining the control of circadian rhythms needs to be considered in interaction between EP’s and EZ’s, including light, social and cultural factors.
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    (Original post by yung7up)
    Anyone have a good A01 for genetics for aggression?
    I have a full essay if you would like it!
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    (Original post by louise.18)
    Hi, I was always told that it's more effective if you include small points about IDA throughout the essay which are more specific, rather than in one big paragraph at the end.
    Thanks X
    And the things I listed are they all the IDA points possible? Then I just refer them to the supporting studies etc?
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    (Original post by Elle_w)
    Is it likely that AQA will ask about the same approach for more than one topic e.g evolutionary explanations of group display for aggression and evolutionary explanations of gender role?


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    I think it's unlikely- although they can.
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    when people say loopas predictions are inaccurate, do they mean a question other than his top prediction came up, or than none of his predicted questions came up?
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    (Original post by miajohnsonhall)
    when people say loopas predictions are inaccurate, do they mean a question other than his top prediction came up, or than none of his predicted questions came up?
    I've always thought loopa to be accurate because even if the top prediction doesn't come it's usually one of the other ones


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    (Original post by Elle_w)
    I've always thought loopa to be accurate because even if the top prediction doesn't come it's usually one of the other ones


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    yeah exactly! its logical one of his top four come up,so if we just hardcore revsie those we've halved the content
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    (Original post by miajohnsonhall)
    when people say loopas predictions are inaccurate, do they mean a question other than his top prediction came up, or than none of his predicted questions came up?
    (Original post by Elle_w)
    I've always thought loopa to be accurate because even if the top prediction doesn't come it's usually one of the other ones
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    Last year for sleep aggression and relationships out of all his predictions only sleep came up correct the other two the 4 he suggested didnt come up, which is why its a risk when people are just learning his prediction.
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    (Original post by Elle_w)
    I've always thought loopa to be accurate because even if the top prediction doesn't come it's usually one of the other ones


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    He's got all my topics correct for the past 2 years so hoping his streak continues!
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    (Original post by CAPTAINSHAZAM)
    Last year for sleep aggression and relationships out of all his predictions only sleep came up correct the other two the 4 he suggested didnt come up, which is why its a risk when people are just learning his prediction.
    I'm pretty sure his prediction of institutional aggression was spot on
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    (Original post by CAPTAINSHAZAM)
    Last year for sleep aggression and relationships out of all his predictions only sleep came up correct the other two the 4 he suggested didnt come up, which is why its a risk when people are just learning his prediction.
    That's a lie... Both his relationships and aggression came up! His aggression prediction (the top prediction by the way) CAME UP!
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    (Original post by NHM)
    He's got all my topics correct for the past 2 years so hoping his streak continues!
    (Original post by Socychoictraphy)
    I'm pretty sure his prediction of institutional aggression was spot on
    Actually yes youre right i was looking at 2016.... Not 2015 it does seem his predicitons were right.
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    (Original post by Marli-Ruth)
    Thanks X
    And the things I listed are they all the IDA points possible? Then I just refer them to the supporting studies etc?
    Yep, IDA can be used to:

    criticise individual studies:
    - Animal studies you would talk about methodological or ethical issues e.g. problems with generalising to humans, unethical to use animals

    criticise an approach or theory:
    - The biological approach to aggression is reductionist, as it does not consider the role of environmental influences in causing aggression. It therefore only considers the nature side of the nature-nurture debate.

    Hope this helps!
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    (Original post by IHatePsychology)
    I'd use it as a02. That's cause there isn't much for A01 but you still got a lot of juicy points to gain from a02 from these big studies rather than waste them on a01.

    To be fair I don't like culture. There is barely any A01 for it. I am guessing it may not come up or maybe just as a 4/6 marker if it can.
    I'd put for a01: similarities between culture:

    Division of labour, just chat about male being hunter and women rearing the children.
    Aggression= universally men are aggressive.
    Confirmity= almost all societies women are more restricted where as men can do as they please.

    Then similarities:
    Spatial perception. Researchers foundin nomadic socitetys women have a very similar lvl of that of men, whereas in the tight sedentary socties the differences were the biggest. This can be explained through due to the fact sed sociteys because women hunt together with men and develop similar spatial perception which is required when hunting whereas in tight sedintary socitey gender role is taught from a very young age that men should be hunters and women should rear. At least that's what I think. You should be able to get like 6 marks at least if you put a little nicer and with better spelling lol.

    Then a02 you got a good amount.
    Mead study- supports this. bla bla u know the drill 3 pap new gueina...
    critism of meda study, she told the people what to say to her yda yda yda
    John william study, 30 cultures, 2800 students and 300 adjectives... bla bla bla.
    Criticism- social desirability, no help explaining, students are a group with similarties can't apply through to whole of the society.
    Western culture, impliited ethics, western psychology using their psychmetric tests and all that bs.
    Maybe 1 or 2 more. or expalin in detial like i am cause If i do too much ill end up forgetting and never finish!

    Bad spelling sorry and rubbish text hopefully though you should get an idea.
    Read my username, this explains my stance on psychology.
    Thank you sooo much, this helped a lot! And don't worry every since revision for psychology has begun I've been feeling the exact same way towards the subject 😂
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    (Original post by miajohnsonhall)
    when people say loopas predictions are inaccurate, do they mean a question other than his top prediction came up, or than none of his predicted questions came up?
    I wouldn't trust his predictions. The exam board are mixing things up more.
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    Is it likely they'll ask same questions as last year? any reason to learn them in full detail?
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    SOMEONE PLEASE HELP!

    I'm evaluating sexual selection theory (relationships) and i've come across the Penton-voak et al study but I can't work out how it is evaluating the theory?

    Is it supporting, going against or what?

    Brief outline of their study:

    - Found female mate choice varies across menstrual cycle
    - Women choose feminised face for long-term relationships as it represents kindness and cooperation
    - Choose a masculine face for short-term sex during high-risk conception phase of menstrual cycle
    - Masculinity represents high testosterone linked to suppression of immune system
    - Such males must have highly efficient immune system -> valuable characteristic for offspring
 
 
 
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