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AQA A2 Psychology PSYA3/PSYA4 Revision Thread 2016 Watch

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    Anyone know what grade this essay may be???
    Discussissues associated with the classification and/or diagnosis of schizophrenia. (8+ 16 marks)One issue surrounding the classification and diagnosis ofschizophrenia is that inter-rater reliability is poor. For example, Beck et al (1962) found that agreementon a diagnosis of SZ between two psychiatrists was only 54%. This was blamed on the ‘vague’ criteria usedfor diagnosis. This is an issue because it suggests thatdiagnosis is subjective, which could lead to the same patient receivingdifferent diagnoses from different doctors. This could lead to in appropriate treatments being given. However, it should be notedthat the two psychiatrists in the Beck study interviewed the patientsseparately, so they may have received different information on each occasion,which could explain their lack of agreement. It should also be noted that this research is now 50 years old, meaningthat classification systems have been revised several times since, which shouldhave improved the inter-rater reliability of diagnosis.
    Rosenhan’s classic study brought into question the ability ofpsychiatrists to diagnose schizophrenia. He found that, of 8 pseudo patients who presented to hospital sayingthey could hear single words like ‘thud’, all were admitted to hospital (7 witha diagnosis of schizophrenia, 1 with a mood disorder). This was despite the fact that none of themwere suffering from any mental disorders. This is worryingbecause it means that people who are not mentally ill could be labelled asschizophrenic. Even if this diagnosis islater revised, the stigma may still remain. For example, they may have to declare their past ‘illness’ on jobinterviews, et In the secondpart of Rosehnan’s study, a teaching and research hospital challenged him tosend more pseudo patients, saying that they would be able to recognisethem. During a three month period, thehospital staff identified approximately 10% of their regular intake as beingpseudo patients. However, Rosenhanrevealed that he had sent no new patients, demonstrating that the doctors couldnot reliably identify those who were not schizophrenic. This is an issue because it means that some people who areschizophrenic may be refused treatment because the doctors do not recognisetheir condition. This could mean thattheir condition worsens and they become a danger to themselves or others. Although it is rare for people withschizophrenia to be violent, this could occur if delusions /hallucinations areleft untreated. The risk of suicide mayalso increase. However,the classification system in use at the time this study was carried out (1973)was the DSM 2, whereas the current system is DSM 4 (the 5th editionis due to be published next year). Overtime, the systems have been improved in light of experience, which should meanthat Rosenhan’s results would not be replicated today. A further issue is that there are two different diagnostic manualsthat can be used to diagnose schizophrenia. The DSM is widely used in the UKand America, whereas the ICD is commonly used in the rest of Europe. There are several differences between thesystems which could mean that a patient in the UK receives a differentdiagnosis to those in the US, even when their symptoms are exactly thesame. For example, the DSM uses a multiaxial system, meaning that it takes other factors, such as social andoccupational functioning, into account when making a diagnosis. It also requires continuous signs ofdisturbance to be present for a continuous period of at least 6 months(including one month of characteristic symptoms), whereas the ICD only requiresone month of symptoms for a diagnosis of schizophrenia to be made. There are several potential issues with this. Firstly, a patient may be misdiagnosed usingthe ICD because one month of schizophrenia like symptoms could be due to ashort term stressor in their life, such as the death of a family member. However, there could also be a problem withusing the DSM, in that a patient with severe schizophrenic symptoms may not receiveprompt and appropriate treatment if they do not meet the criteria of havingsuffered with at least six months of previous signs of disturbance. Both classifications systems use subtypes as a way to groupcertain symptoms together. For example, a patient with paranoid delusions maybe classified as a ‘paranoid type’ schizophrenic. The addition of subtypes was originallyintended to improve the validity and reliability of diagnosis, with the aim ofdeveloping specific treatments for different subtypes. However, subtypes will be removed from DSM 5 because they have not beenfound to predict the outcome of thedisorder or allow doctors to predict the response to treatment (poor predictivevalidity). Finally, Thomas Szasz suggested that there is no such thing asschizophrenia, and therefore it cannot, and should not, be classified anddiagnosed. He argued that labelling people as mentally ill can beused as a form of ‘social control’, in which certain sections of society whichare seen as damaging or undesirable by the ruling classes (e.g. unwed mothersin the 1960s) are given the label of ‘mad’ in an attempt to remove them frommainstream society. However, it could beargued that it is necessary to classify mental illness to prevent theindividual suffering and to protect wider society from those who couldpotentially be harmful.
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    (Original post by ubiquitousking)
    How much would I be penalised for not mentioning more than one evolutionary explanation of aggression? I went into a lot of detail into sexual jealousy and infidelity as explanations for aggression, had at least 2 evaluative points per study (5 studies depending on whether Holt & Lewis counted, otherwise 4) and quite a bit of IDA (comparing it to other approaches... Citing practical uses and the inherent problems with evolutionary approaches to human behaviour etc.) but I completely missed the "explanations" in the question... does that mean that they disregard what I've written up to a point?

    If so... wtf? xD Why penalise people for something so minor and subtle? Are they expecting students to be that sharp when they're trying to remember so many evaluative points for so many possible questions, whilst being somewhat nervous/anxious? It feels a bit cheap to me, but this is my only essay-based subject xD
    Probably you won't be penalised at all. Worst case scenario, which I think is very unlikely, you'll only be able to get a maximum of 13/20 for that question, but seeing how you could get 4/4 for social psychological... There's still a possibility to get 17/24 which would mean that individual topic would usually be an A*... So even if they do penalise, it's not that bad
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    I'm doing essay plans now for addiction, and I was confused as to how to do it. Do I do essay plans on the biological explanation(or another approach) for smoking and then on gambling, or do I do plans separate for initiation, maintenance and relapse since you can be asked questions on each? If we have to memorise research for initiation, maintenance and relapse for smoking and then gambling and also for all the approaches, wouldn't that just be overwhelming compared to people doing other topics?


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    (Original post by mscoupon)
    Did anyone do eating behaviour for Psy3? could you tell me what the question/s were?
    Discuss biological explanations for anorexia nervosa/builimia nervosa
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    (Original post by ubiquitousking)
    How much would I be penalised for not mentioning more than one evolutionary explanation of aggression? I went into a lot of detail into sexual jealousy and infidelity as explanations for aggression, had at least 2 evaluative points per study (5 studies depending on whether Holt & Lewis counted, otherwise 4) and quite a bit of IDA (comparing it to other approaches... Citing practical uses and the inherent problems with evolutionary approaches to human behaviour etc.) but I completely missed the "explanations" in the question... does that mean that they disregard what I've written up to a point?

    If so... wtf? xD Why penalise people for something so minor and subtle? Are they expecting students to be that sharp when they're trying to remember so many evaluative points for so many possible questions, whilst being somewhat nervous/anxious? It feels a bit cheap to me, but this is my only essay-based subject xD
    wait was the aggression question on explainations or a explanation?
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    Ive finished two "essays" for depression one of which was characteristics and is only really a 4 marker, ive got 4 essays left however 2 psychological theories were asked in the official 15 and 14 paper not the replacement one. So i strongly believe this isnt coming up so im going to revise the other 2 bio theories and i should finish depression today leaving me 4 days to do addiction and research methods.

    Hows everyone else getting on.
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    It seems less stressful revising for PSYA4 compared to the amount of content needed for PSYA3. However, studying research methods is pretty hard though...
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    (Original post by Anam)
    Okay so my plan for the day is to memorise three depression essays (bio explanation, psych explanations and Psych therapies) and then look over clinical characteristics of depression which could come up as a 4 marker.
    Psych explanation and therapies both came up in 15 and 14 paper not replacement so i doubt it would come up again issues of classification hasnt appeared in 3 exam windows and the bio theories are big chances i personally wouldnt revise psych especially because one of the bio theories or explanation came up in replacement paper but was several exam windows late, so that has a chance of coming up again.
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    Predictions for schizophrenia?
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    (Original post by TrojanH)
    lol gonna try and learn media in a day. was taught addiction but sod doing all that.
    I want to do this because addiction seems like a ball ache theres so much to learn but im more worried my teachers might have a go and tell me off for basically answering a section i wasnt taught...
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    (Original post by CAPTAINSHAZAM)
    Psych explanation and therapies both came up in 15 and 14 paper not replacement so i doubt it would come up again issues of classification hasnt appeared in 3 exam windows and the bio theories are big chances i personally wouldnt revise psych especially because one of the bio theories or explanation came up in replacement paper but was several exam windows late, so that has a chance of coming up again.
    Ahh okay. so should i concentrate more on Biological explanations and issues of classification then the others
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    (Original post by CAPTAINSHAZAM)
    I want to do this because addiction seems like a ball ache theres so much to learn but im more worried my teachers might have a go and tell me off for basically answering a section i wasnt taught...
    i never paid attention in class so it doesn't matter which i do, i would have to teach myself either of these. have my history exam tommorow so i cant revise psych now.

    are you so much of a pussy that you care about what your teachers MIGHT think for you doing your own exam? you've always been independent... teachers have no responsibility for you 'doing well' so stick with that attitude and most importantly see it through.
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    (Original post by CAPTAINSHAZAM)
    Ive finished two "essays" for depression one of which was characteristics and is only really a 4 marker, ive got 4 essays left however 2 psychological theories were asked in the official 15 and 14 paper not the replacement one. So i strongly believe this isnt coming up so im going to revise the other 2 bio theories and i should finish depression today leaving me 4 days to do addiction and research methods.

    Hows everyone else getting on.
    Are you revising psychological explanations as it came up on the original paper (not the replacement) but that paper isn't on the AQA website. Is there still a chance?
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    Anyone doing Media and Schizophrenia for PSYA4
    I'm here to help haha

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PNgAX7JEPaY

    Check out the videos ^
    They may be of some use
    Don't forget to subscribe, ill be posting more videos today!
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    Also how would you answer this question: outline clinical characteristics of depression (4)
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    (Original post by TrojanH)
    i never paid attention in class so it doesn't matter which i do, i would have to teach myself either of these. have my history exam tommorow so i cant revise psych now.

    are you so much of a pussy that you care about what your teachers MIGHT think for you doing your own exam? you've always been independent... teachers have no responsibility for you 'doing well' so stick with that attitude and most importantly see it through.
    Lol its not about pussy its more of it would be abit weird for me to do a completely new topic when i was taught something else even though i barely remember anything from addiction... Really dont know what do.
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    (Original post by TrojanH)
    i never paid attention in class so it doesn't matter which i do, i would have to teach myself either of these. have my history exam tommorow so i cant revise psych now.

    are you so much of a pussy that you care about what your teachers MIGHT think for you doing your own exam? you've always been independent... teachers have no responsibility for you 'doing well' so stick with that attitude and most importantly see it through.
    which topic are you changing to from addiction because think lll change to
    and where are you getting the notes from? would you be able to share them
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    Does anybody have an essay plan/ essay on diagnosis and classification of depression? I missed the beginning of the school year and I'm finding this difficult


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    (Original post by CAPTAINSHAZAM)
    Lol its not about pussy its more of it would be abit weird for me to do a completely new topic when i was taught something else even though i barely remember anything from addiction... Really dont know what do.
    what's the alternative to addiction? because i haven't started writing the essays for it yet but i'm not looking forward to it... maybe it'd be an idea to learn a whole other topic and if so we'd be in the same boat?
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    (Original post by Kitty201322)
    which topic are you changing to from addiction because think lll change to
    and where are you getting the notes from? would you be able to share them
    I am doing Depression, Media and Research. I was taught Addiction but I am not doing it.
 
 
 
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