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    can someone please summarise the steps for translation (& transcription if you have time, but i mainly need it for translation)
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    (Original post by alevelshelp)
    can someone please summarise the steps for translation (& transcription if you have time, but i mainly need it for translation)
    Transcription:
    1. DNA helicase unzips a gene by breaking the hydrogen bonds between complementary nucleotide bases.
    2. RNA polymerase attaches to the start of the template strand of the gene.
    3. It brings in free nucleotides with the base complementary to the base on the template strand (C=G, A=U)
    4. RNA polymerase moves alone the strand in the 3' - 5' direction which synthesises a polynucleotide in the 5' - 3' direction. Bonds are formed between adjacent nucleotides.
    5. At the end of the gene (terminator), transcription ends.
    6. The polynucleotide formed is called pre-mRNA.

    Translation:
    1. A ribosome attaches to the start codon on mRNA, the codon that codes the first amino acid (usually Met)
    2. It brings the tRNA molecule with the anticodon complementary to the codon it reads on mRNA.
    3. This tRNA molecule carried a specific amino acid to the ribosome.
    4. The ribosome moves along the mRNA.
    5. A chain of amino acids is formed.
    6. By means of an enzyme and energy from ATP, a peptide bond is formed between adjacent amino acids.
    7. This allows the tRNA molecule to be released from the amino acid. It can go and carry more amino acids to the ribosome.
    8. The ribosome reaches the stop codon which terminates translation.
    9. A polypeptide has formed.
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    (Original post by RMNDK)
    Transcription:
    1. DNA helicase unzips a gene by breaking the hydrogen bonds between complementary nucleotide bases.
    2. RNA polymerase attaches to the start of the template strand of the gene.
    3. It brings in free nucleotides with the base complementary to the base on the template strand (C=G, A=U)
    4. RNA polymerase moves alone the strand in the 3' - 5' direction which synthesises a polynucleotide in the 5' - 3' direction. Bonds are formed between adjacent nucleotides.
    5. At the end of the gene (terminator), transcription ends.
    6. The polynucleotide formed is called pre-mRNA.
    Translation:
    1. A ribosome attaches to the start codon on mRNA, the codon that codes the first amino acid (usually Met)
    2. It brings the tRNA molecule with the anticodon complementary to the codon it reads on mRNA.
    3. This tRNA molecule carried a specific amino acid to the ribosome.
    4. The ribosome moves along the mRNA.
    5. A chain of amino acids is formed.
    6. By means of an enzyme and energy from ATP, a peptide bond is formed between adjacent amino acids.
    7. This allows the tRNA molecule to be released from the amino acid. It can go and carry more amino acids to the ribosome.
    8. The ribosome reaches the stop codon which terminates translation.
    9. A polypeptide has formed.
    thank you so much!!
 
 
 
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