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    (Original post by Rectum_resizer)
    Can someone please explain Benedicts test as I don't have a ****ing clue
    This tests for sugars, there are two types of sugars: Reducing (all monosaccaharides) and Non reducing.

    Add Benedict's reagent to the solution and heat, If there is a reducing sugar a reddish precipitate will form (Cu2+ [blue] has been reduced to Cu+ [red]).
    If there is no change it is probably a non reducing sugar.
    To confirm this get a new sample of the solution, add HCl to hydrolyse the polysaccharide to a monosaccharide. The add an alkali to neutralise the solution. Add benedicts reagent and this time it should form a red precipitate.
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    (Original post by Dr Adaeze)
    Oh thank sweet merciful Jesus Christ Jehovah Allah Science Karma The Universe YESSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS. Are you 100% sure?! *Cries from happiness*
    100% sure
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    yes thats pretty much it, in the bony fish there is 5 gills covered by the operculum, each gill consists of two row of gills called filaments (primary lamalle) which are then folded to form seconday lamallae, providing a large surface area so that when blood flows along gill arch to the filaments there is a large surface area to maximise gaseous exchange during the process known as countercurrent flow where blood flows opposite direction to the water to maximise the absorption of 02.You also need to know the ventilation as the buccal cavity lowers water fills the mouth and the operculum is coordinated so the operculum moves outwards so opercular cavity pressure is lowered helping water move in.
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    Good luck everyone. You should be glad I'm taking the paper. Im going to negatively skew the grade boundaries for you. You're welcome!
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    I can't wrap my head around mitosis. the order of phases is prophase, metaphase, anaphase, then telophase. right?

    what about cytokinesis? how does that relate to mitosis .-.
    ok, maybe i should open my book.
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    I'm hoping classification doesnt come up!
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    Can someone explain how to do serial dilutions to get 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 concentratios?
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    (Original post by thompsonnn)
    Cell mediated immunity is the immune response to cells that have undergone changes (such as by a virus infection).

    Macrophages digest the pathogen by phagocytosis. The antigens from the pathogen combine with glycoproteins in the cytoplasm of the macrophage called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The cell then presents these antigens on its own cell-surface membrane and becomes and antigen-presenting cell (APC).

    The production of the APC stimulates T-helper cells (due to complementary cell-receptors on its membrane to the antigens) to produce interlukin-1, which in turn stimulates the production of interlukin-2. This induces the rapid division and differentiation of the T-helper cell into T-killer cells or T-memory cells. The T-helper cells produce the protein perforin which causes the formation of pores in pathogens and thus, lysis. T-memory cells give rapid response if the pathogen invades the body again.
    I think T killer cells produce perforin, it makes more sense that the killer cells actively produce substances to kill other cells
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    (Original post by habibtii)
    I can't wrap my head around mitosis. the order of phases is prophase, metaphase, anaphase, then telophase. right?

    what about cytokinesis? how does that relate to mitosis .-.
    ok, maybe i should open my book.
    YES, its IPMAT-Interphase, propahase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
    Cytokinesis is related to mitosis, all you need to know is that a new membrane forms around each cell
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    (Original post by matt1306)
    I'm hoping classification doesnt come up!
    Same, I've kind of neglected biodiversity and classification.
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    Literally on every paper so far everything i hate has come up...so revise ventilation in fish and insects haha.
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    (Original post by The Moo)
    Same, I've kind of neglected biodiversity and classification.
    I've neglected everything
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    Do you think I should put emphasis in revising the heart? I wasn't sure because it came up in the practice papers..
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    (Original post by The Moo)
    Same, I've kind of neglected biodiversity and classification.
    Same, too boring
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    do you guys think this paper will be very difficult?
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    Will we be given formulas like S.D and Simpson's index or do we need to memorize them?
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    (Original post by MattLS)
    Will we be given formulas like S.D and Simpson's index or do we need to memorize them?
    we get given it, but they may not tell you what every part of the equation stands for
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    Do you think that there's gonna be statistical tests? Like the Students T test and Simpsons index?


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    (Original post by mm_7)
    do you guys think this paper will be very difficult?
    Yes, but everyone's in the same position so if it's hard, generally grade boundaries will be lower.
    Say the paper is difficult, there's a few people who find it easy but everyone else will find it hard
    If u get me


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    [QUOTE=brodingoson;65190935]Yes, but everyone's in the same position so if it's hard, generally grade boundaries will be lower.
    Say the paper is difficult, there's a few people who find it easy but everyone else will find it hard
    If u get me

    yeah i get you hopefully its a reasonable paper
 
 
 
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