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    Hi all, today I completed this huge mindmap on the class board about Natural Law. Should be everything there that you could want to know about it! Including some strengths and weaknesses!

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    When you click on it, zoom in to wherever you like or save it! Hope this helps someone
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    For genetic engineering what is included under human engineering? I've got germ-line and somatic but are saviour siblings, IVF and PGD included in these things?
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    Also, does anyone else think that the Jill Oliphant textbooks have very little detail on each topic?
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    Am I correct in saying natural law is a deontological theory based on a teleological view from Aristotle's argument that good is defined by the final causes , which we naturally pursue ?
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    Predictions for Friday?!


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    Natural law is deontological, yes. Aristotle inspired much of Aquinas' thinking as did Cicero.
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    Quick question: how long should a 25 marker roughly be in terms of pages or paragraphs?

    I'm resitting this to boost my A2 grade and honestly cannot remember how long my higher mark essays would really be. I know this depends a lot on your hand writing size, whether you babble on and such, but I just want to know. I feel like I hit the spec with the content I include, my handwriting is medium sized, but my 25 markers cover like 3 sides of A4 paper. I usually have about 6-7 paragraphs, but my paragraphs are quite long.

    ** this is handwritten and not typed **
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    (Original post by MorganColey)
    Predictions for Friday?!


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    My teacher is convinced that Natural Law will come up. Also he noted abortion, war and peace.... He may have mentioned Kant but I can't remember
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    (Original post by MorganColey)
    Predictions for Friday?!


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    http://peped.org/philosophicalinvest...thics-2016-a2/
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    Does anyone know what Mills meant by the judges? Regarding higher and lower good?
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    (Original post by Whitbyyy)
    Does anyone know what Mills meant by the judges? Regarding higher and lower good?
    Do you mean John Stuart Mill (Rule Utilitarian) and his distinction between higher and lower pleasures? If so:

    Higher pleasures are pleasures of the mind, such as art, friendships, love etc

    Lower pleasures are pleasures of the body (basically that animals have too) such as eating, drinking, having intercourse etc

    Hope it helped


    ** if I'm wrong feel free to correct me
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    (Original post by Whitbyyy)
    Does anyone know what Mills meant by the judges? Regarding higher and lower good?
    Sorry it's so long, I'm not entirely sure on your question but this is what I've got on Mill:

    Mill was also a hedonist and accepted that happiness is of the greatest importance.
    He stressed happiness rather than pleasure.

    The Greatest Happiness Principle:

    Mill explained that ‘The Greatest Happiness Principle holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. By happiness is intended pleasure, and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain and the privation of pleasure’.

    The quality of pleasure:

    Having affirmed his agreement with the principle of utility, Mill then modified Bentham’s approach, especially the quantitative emphasis.
    He argued that some pleasures are more desirable and valuable than others and that quality of pleasure needs to be taken into account along with quantity.
    According to Mill, quality of pleasure employs the use of the higher faculties.
    This answers the objection to Bentham’s approach that utilitarians are simply pleasure seekers.
    E.g. Romans watching Christians killed by lions.
    Mill wrote that the quality of pleasure that satisfies a human is different from that which satisfies an animal. People are capable of more than animals, so it takes more to make a human happy.
    Therefore, a person will always choose higher quality, human pleasures, and reject animalistic pleasures.
    Since the Romans were only enjoying an animalistic pleasure, it doesn’t matter that they receive a much greater pleasure than the Christians as quality is more important than quantity.
    For Mill, intellectual pleasures (e.g. reading, listening to music) count a lot more than physical pleasures (e.g. eating, having sex).
    He argued happiness is something people desire for its own sake, but we need to look at human life as a whole — happiness is not simply adding up the unity of pleasure, but the fulfilment of higher ideals.

    Universalisability:

    Mill next developed his argument by stating that in order to derive the principle of the greatest god for the greatest number, we need the principle of universalisability.
    He argued that:
    Each person desires their own happiness.
    Therefore, each person ought to aim at their happiness
    Therefore, everyone ought to aim at the happiness of everyone

    The last proposition doesn’t follow logically from the second.
    To move from each person to everyone is a fallacy.
    Mill did this in an attempt to justify ‘the greatest number’.
    This can mean that Utilitarianism demands that people put the interests of the group before their own.
    Mill compared this to Jesus’ Golden Rule.
    Mill had a positive view of human nature and thought that people have powerful feelings of empathy for others which can be cultivated by education.

    Rule Utilitarianism:

    Another aspect of Mill’s approach is the idea that there needs to be some moral rules in order to establish social order and justice.
    However, the rules if followed universally should be most likely to produce the greatest happiness.
    Mill has been seen as a Rule Utilitarian, although, Mill never discussed Utilitarianism in terms of act/rule.
    Mill’s approach was not consistent throughout his writings, at first Mill seemed to be an Act Utilitarian, saying that pleasures can be described as higher/lower.
    Later he wrote that rights and rules are principles of utility.
    He argued some rights need to be guaranteed in order to ensure general happiness and the greater good.
    He seemed to assert that when one is uncertain as to which action to take the rules of justice and rights must be considered as most important.
    As Mill’s position is unclear, he’s often described as being a weak Rule Utilitarian, as when a strong Utilitarian reason exists to break the rule, the rule should be disregarded.

    - Hope this helps
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    Who knows the questions of the 2015 AS Ethics paper? Would be a great help!

    Thanks
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    Anyone know where I could find some good summary notes for the ethics stuff?

    Thanks in advance
    Blake
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    (Original post by annieprincess)
    Who knows the questions of the 2015 AS Ethics paper? Would be a great help!

    Thanks
    1A) Explain how Utilitarians might approach euthanasia.
    B) 'Helping a terminally ill patient to die is morally wrong' discuss.

    2A) Explain why there are different ethical views about the status of an embryo.
    B) 'Potential life should always be protected from harm' discuss.

    3A) Explain the main aims of Kant's ethical theory.
    B) 'Kant's idea of universalisation does not work in practice' discuss.

    4A) Explain one religious ethical theory.
    B) 'Morality is always dependant on God' discuss.
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    (Original post by Vexated)
    Thank you very much
    Here are some resources i have found will find my final notes though
    Attached Files
  1. File Type: ppt Applied Ethics.ppt (6.07 MB, 198 views)
  2. File Type: docx Abortion applied to utilitarianism handout.docx (115.2 KB, 91 views)
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    Presictions for tomorrow??? Ive ched philosophical investigations but are there any personal predictions people have made???
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    (Original post by Louise12307)
    I haven't heard of "developing God's image" in Aquinas' natural law theory. He does mention Christian values such as patience etc though. But that's not the same thing.

    Aquinas main points involve:

    • internal/external acts
    • the 4 types of law
    • synderesis and phronesis
    • primary precepts
    • secondary precepts
    • Beatific Vision
    • real and apparent goods
    • doctrine of double effect
    what is the beatific vision ?
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    Predictions for tomorrow anyone ???!!??
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    are there any quotes for natural law
    whats the difference between natural law and natural moral law?
 
 
 
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