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    I'm in Year 12 and will be taking the OCR Religious Studies Ethics exam later in May. I am currently struggling at the moment. My teacher is not experienced and doesn't know the content very well, so I can't ask him for help. The OCR textbook is useful, though it's a matter of luck whether you get a lot of detail or a small paragraph on any particular topic.

    The issue I am having is having enough knowledge to answer exam questions on those really specific exam questions, like 'Explain the differences between Act and Rule utilitarianism'. Also I can't find much information on applied ethics.

    Any help from past or current students would be very much appreciated.
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    (Original post by Hariex)
    I'm in Year 12 and will be taking the OCR Religious Studies Ethics exam later in May. I am currently struggling at the moment. My teacher is not experienced and doesn't know the content very well, so I can't ask him for help. The OCR textbook is useful, though it's a matter of luck whether you get a lot of detail or a small paragraph on any particular topic.

    The issue I am having is having enough knowledge to answer exam questions on those really specific exam questions, like 'Explain the differences between Act and Rule utilitarianism'. Also I can't find much information on applied ethics.

    Any help from past or current students would be very much appreciated.
    Act utilitarianism:States that the rightness or wrongness of an actare calculated by the amount of happiness it brings
    Bentham relates to this
    The principle is applied directly to an action in acircumstance

    An action must lead to the greatest good in eachsituation and apply the principle of utility directly

    If in a situation lying will create the greatestpleasure, they should lie (& vice versa)

    To determine whether an act is right we must lookat the consequences & what will bring the greatest happiness

    One may break a law for the greatest happiness
    Flexibility
    It’s a flexible ethical system – each situation istreated differently

    Allows moral rules to change from age to age,situation to situation

    No rule accept we must seek greatest happiness forgreatest number
    Act Utilitarianism is:Measurable& quantitative – units of happiness can be worked outthrough hedonic calculus
    Eudemonistic– concerned with pursuit of happiness and avoidingpain
    Teleological– maximisation of pleasure for majority & has anend aim
    Relative– No absolute right or wrong
    Consequential –The consequences of an act make it right/wrong

    Rule Utilitarianism Generalrules are assessed to bring happiness

    Millis associated with this

    Theprinciple of utility is applied to a set of rules which determines what to doin situations to bring the greatest good in society

    Ifthe rules are followed by everyone in the community, it will lead to the bestresult

    Actionsare judged right or wrong based on the goodness or badness of the consequences

    Enablesus to create that rules that typically would bring the best result (e.g.telling the truth)

    Rulestake priority over the situation (e.g. being late for an appointment; you mustnot speed to be on time because it brings danger upon the community)

    Strong Rule Utilitarianism: rules in society thatbring the greatest happiness should never be disobeyed
    Weak Rule Utilitarianism:
    The rules don’t alwayshave to be stuck to – disregarding rules can sometimes be better


    Rule Utilitarianism is:Qualitative – concerned with type of pleasure (notamount!)
    Eudemonistic - concerned with pursuit ofhappiness and avoiding pain
    Universalistic– concerned with happiness for the community
    Relative– what’s rightor wrong is based on maximising pleasure for society
    Consequential– the consequences of an act make it right/wrong
    Deontological– rules take priority


    (sorry about the way it is typed)
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