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The Official A2 Politics Thread (exams tommorow) watch

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    Ok, here are some ideas for possible question areas. I can assure people that they are not lifted from a stolen exam paper and if they do come up (or similair ones) then it is by chance.

    1.
    Reform of the C.A.P. (see other thread running).

    2.
    How has the Governement been "tough on crime, tough on the causes of crime"?

    3.
    Identify meausres both legislative and non legislative designed to tackle racism. How effective have they been?

    4.
    Successive Governments have intended to improve the state of the country through improving education. To what extent has this happened and has it been successful?

    5.
    (This one always seems to come up). What are the main ways that pressure groups have responded to the expansion of the E.U.?

    6.
    Economic policy was the subject of much political conflict in the past however since 1979 there has been a broad sense of agreement. Evaluate this statement.
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    (Original post by Mark_KK)
    Ok, here are some ideas for possible question areas. I can assure people that they are not lifted from a stolen exam paper and if they do come up (or similair ones) then it is by chance.

    1.
    Reform of the C.A.P. (see other thread running).

    2.
    How has the Governement been "tough on crime, tough on the causes of crime"?

    3.
    Identify meausres both legislative and non legislative designed to tackle racism. How effective have they been?

    4.
    Successive Governments have intended to improve the state of the country through improving education. To what extent has this happened and has it been successful?

    5.
    (This one always seems to come up). What are the main ways that pressure groups have responded to the expansion of the E.U.?

    6.
    Economic policy was the subject of much political conflict in the past however since 1979 there has been a broad sense of agreement. Evaluate this statement.

    ah good ol politics i done no revision lol time to blag me thinks
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    how would u answer number 5 about pressure group responses to expansion of the EU? are you referring to enlargement or the extension of powers?

    xx
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    (Original post by jazzyj)
    how would u answer number 5 about pressure group responses to expansion of the EU? are you referring to enlargement or the extension of powers?

    xx

    it just means the EU's general evolution I think, nothing to do with enlargement. You just have to talk about the fact that they target a) the commission, as the commission holds consultation with pgs and the COR b) the council of ministers, aiming for ministers to bring up their issues and c) the parliament for general exposure and lobbying. Also need to point out that issues like the environment/ labour law is now very much in the jurisdiction of the EU rather than that of national governments. Oo also the fact that they join up into big groupings with other pgs., and many have offices in Brussels now. I'm sure there's more but I can't think of it...
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    Could someone please tell me the format of the paper and how long your supposed to spend on each question? (edexcel)
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    Anyone else doing OCR politics...comparitive between US and UK mainly with a bit of EU thrown in??
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    (Original post by Elle)
    Could someone please tell me the format of the paper and how long your supposed to spend on each question? (edexcel)
    Unit 4 and 5 contain four shorter questions, worth 20 marks of which you must do only 2. They recommend you spend 15minutes on these and 3 essay questions of which you must do only 1 and spend 45 minutes on.

    Unit 6 contains 4 essay questions of which you do 2 and you are supposed to spend 45 minutes on each.
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    (Original post by Imagashead)
    Unit 4 and 5 contain four shorter questions, worth 20 marks of which you must do only 2. They recommend you spend 15minutes on these and 3 essay questions of which you must do only 1 and spend 45 minutes on.

    Unit 6 contains 4 essay questions of which you do 2 and you are supposed to spend 45 minutes on each.
    Thanks Imagashead! I don't have time to revise all of the topics in each unit so I'm only doing 3 out of 4 in Unit 4 and 3 out of 5 in Unit 5. Can I get away with this ?
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    I certainly hope that you can get away with this as I am doing it in one year and thus have not done anything about Northern Ireland.
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    Anyone got any notes on Unit 5 especially that they would care to share?
    Could really do with some concise notes just to get me through that one!!
    Heres some stuff on Race and Immigration for Unit 4:

    RACE AND IMMIGRATION
    Very little immigration before 1950s.
    After 50s subsidised immigration from west Indies; period of full employment and there were significant shortages of labour in health and public transport. Promised good wages, decent housing and guaranteed employment.
    Second wave in 60s from Asia. Refugees also began to make new homes in UK
    Immigration now less.

    CONTROL
    No control in 50s. As unemployment rose in 60s demands grew for control. 1958 race riots in London Nottingham and Liverpool.
    1981 British Nationality act took British citizenship away from members of the commonwealth.
    Only live in the UK if you, a parent or grandparent were born in UK or apply for naturalisation after 7 years living in country.
    Considered racist towards blacks and Asians.
    Racial tensions grew, Immigrants attacked at Notting hill in 58.
    Enoch Powell: “like a roman I seem to see the river Tiber foaming with much blood”. excessive immigration causing racial violence.
    Liberal conservatives and Labour: support multi-cultural society with tolerant attitude to racial minorities and diversity. Controlled immigration.
    Centre Conservatives: supports control on immigration. Insists racial minorities should integrate.
    Right Wing Conservatives: Opposed to immigration. Tough on asylum seekers.
    Liberal Democrats: Believe in tolerant multi race society. Open policy towards all.

    Labour committed to improving race relations in 1965.
    RACE RELATIONS ACT ‘65
    Set up race relations board. 2 tasks: investigate ways to improve race relations.
    Receive complaints from individuals concerning race discrimination.
    Recommend positive discrimination.
    Lacked legal powers.
    RACE RELATIONS ACT ‘68
    Gave race relations board enforcement powers.
    Community relations commission established.
    Looked at broader picture. Recommendations concerning all areas concerning race (education etc).
    Conservatives didn’t care much. Labour returned in 74 with 3rd piece of legislation.
    RACE RELATIONS ACT OF ‘76
    Set up Commission for Racial Equality.
    Board and commission formed CRE.
    *advise and assist people on racial issues
    *investigate discrimination and ordering change is needed
    *take legal action against specific incidents
    *sponsor judicial reviews by individuals
    *advise government of future legislation
    *liase with local racial equality councils.
    BUT some institutions exempt. Eg private organisation and the police.

    AMENDMENT IN 2000:
    Dealt with MacPherson inquiry into Steven Lawrence murder.
    Educate and train staff on racial issues.
    Duty to public bodies to PROMOTE equality of opportunity and race relations.
    Crimes with racial element considered more serious
    Incitement to racial hatred made serious offence. Eg BNP
    Police officers could be liable for racial offences committed by police. Seniors could be held legally responsible to actions of subordinates.
    Race Legislation unit set up to oversee implementation.

    ARTICLE 13 of Amsterdam treaty:
    Agreed in 2000 by all EU members. Asserts minimum standards of legal protection for all ethnic minorities.


    STEVEN LAWENCE INQUIRY
    Claimed police made insufficient efforts to secure conviction. Failed to offer sufficient protection to witnesses and failed to realise racial nature of crime.
    Lawrence family, encouraged by the CRE called for inquiry.
    Found police was institutionally racist. Said it was in police culture.
    Education for Police officers to prevent racially motivated actions implemented. Recruitment made positively discriminating.
    Recording of all racial incidents.
    Logging of all stop and search incidents to ensure no systematic discrimination.
    Strict disciplinary procedures against racist officers.

    COMMUNITY RACE RELATIONS
    Poor in city areas. Lack of trust between community and police.
    Racist crime = crime thought to be racist by victim or any other person
    Schools and other public bodies should integrate races.
    Representative workforces introduced
    Racial conflict in northern cities (Burnley, Bradford and Oldham) in 01.
    ~~~~> OUSLEY REPORT
    Multicultural society is one where all groups feel integrated and included.
    Cultures didn’t feel directly discriminated, but alienated.
    “Community Pride” needed - all groups should come together under Union Jack.
    (alternative view)
    Liberal: different cultures should be retained and celebrated.

    RACE EQUALITY UNIT
    Ethnic difference should flourish. Britain should be a country where:
    Every colour is a good colour
    Every member can fulfil potential
    Racism is unacceptable
    Everyone is treated equally according to needs and rights
    Everyone recognises their responsibilities
    Racial diversity is celebrated

    NON LEGISLATIVE MEASURES
    Also initiatives to increase relations to
    Create equal opportunity for all
    To eliminate racist attitudes and so reduce racial violence

    Eg football authorities sought to remove racism from the game.
    Still very few Mps from ethnic minorities
    Civil service demanding more racial equality
    Still not clear whether single faith or ethnically mixed schools are good idea.
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    Nobody has anything?!
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    4,5, some of 6

    THE ECONOMY
    PRINCIPLES OF KEYNESIANISM: In a slump, raise levels of spending or lower taxes to create demands... If inflation .. raise tax or reduce spending. Acceptable to borrow to do this.
    PRINCIPLES OF NEO-LIBERALISM: Free, dynamic flexible labour markets, Wages allowed to find natural level, Labour free to move, Deregulation, Promote Competition, Decrease Tax, Privatise Industry, Control money supply to control inflation, Too much spending crowds out private investment,
    PROBLEMS WITH NEO LIBERALISM: Free market = boom and bust, tried to tie to DM – exchange rate fixed too high > Black Wednesday. BW discredited neo-lib policies at time of recession
    MAIN AIMS OF LABOUR POLICY: End boom/bust, restore sense of responsibility, to be able to afford increased exp. On public services, improve competitiveness of Brit industry, create favourable conditions for Euro
    LABOUR’S MAIN POLICIES: Interest rates > MPC, Control of inflation at 2.5% sole task of MPC, Golden rule – borrowing only to invest, budget surpluses used for paying back debt, don’t raise income/corporation tax, minimum wage, tax credits, reducing unemployment, controlling inflation, avoiding high interest rates and reducing public borrowing
    WELFARE STATE
    PRINCIPLES: FINANCED COMPULSORY NI, COMPREHENSIVE, FREE, CANNOT OPT OUT
    PROVISIONS: NHS, SOCIAL SECURITY, PENSION, EDUCATION, SOCIAL SERVICES, HOUSING
    EROSION: COUNCIL HOUSING SOLD, VALUE PENSION DECLINED, SOME SERVICES CHARGED AT NEAR FULL MARKET VALUE, TUITION FEES, REAL VALUE OF BENEFITS DECREASED, PRIVATE SECTOR NOW EMPLOYED TO RUN SOME ASPECTS OF WELFARE STATE
    RETENTION: STILL FUNDED OUT OF TAX, STILL NOT POSS TO OPT OUT, BASIC PRINCIPLES STILL PERSIST, EDUCATION –18 FREE, SOCIAL SERVICES AND SOCIAL SECURITY, LA HOUSING REPLACED WITH LA HOUSING BENEFIT
    CONSERVATIVES: ALLOW REAL VALUE OF PENSION TO FALL, BENEFITS LOW AS INCENTIVE TO WORK, PRESERVE NHS IN PRINCIPLE BUT PROMOTE PRIVATE, NO GREAT INCREASES IN EDUCATION, PAY FOR HE FROM GENERAL TAXATION
    LABOUR: PRESERVE NHS AND EXPAND IT OUT OF TAX AND GROWTH, SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON EDUCATION, INCREASE EXP. ON HE AND MAKE MORE PLACES AVAIL, STAKEHOLDER PENSIONS, TARGET BENEFITS AT THOSE IN WORK AND SEEKING WORK, PROVIDE MINIMUM INCOME FOR ALL BUT THOSE WHO REMAIN UNEMPLOYED BY CHOICE.
    LIB DEM: RAISE TAXES, SPECIAL EMPHASIS HEALTH/EDUCATION, RESTORE VALUE OF OAP, RAISE SOCIAL SECURITY IN REAL TERMS, MAKE HIGHER EDUCATION FREE FOR ALL
    SOCIAL SECURITY
    PRINCIPAL BENEFITS: OAP, INCOME SUPPORT, CHILD BENEFIT, MATERNITY BENEFIT, HOUSING BENEFIT, DISABILITY BENEFIT, WORKING FAMILY TAX CREDITS, SICK PAY, UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFIT
    SOCIAL EXCLUSION: INTERGENERATIONAL POVERTY/DEPRIVATION, LOW EDUC. ACHIEVEMENT, TRUANCY LEADING TO YOUTH CRIME, DRUGS, POVERTY. PLURALITY OF PROBLEMS
    MEASURES USED TO COMBAT SOCIAL EXCLUSION: WELFARE/BENEFITS SYSTEM, INTERVENTION OF SCHOOLS, SOCIAL WORKERS ETC.
    MEASURES USED TO COMBAT POVERTY TRAP: MINIMUM WAGE, LOW TAX BAND (10%), TAX CREDITS, HELP W/ CHILDCARE COSTS, POLICIES TO KEEP UNEMPLOYMENT LOW, SCHOOL PLACES, TRICKLE DOWN UNDER CONS.
    PENSIONS
    PROBLEMS WITH PENSIONS: AGEING POPULATION, LAB. SPLIT ON EARNINGS OR PRICES LINK, V. POOR PENSIONERS, PROBLEMS W/ PRIVATE PENSIONS
    WHY PENSIONS CONTROVERSIAL: NUMBER OF PENSIONERS INCREASING, PENSIONERS SYMBOLIC OF BOND BETWEEN STATE AND CITIZEN, WELL ORGANISED/WELL REPRESENTED, PENSIONERS SEEN AS VULNERABLE
    PRINCIPLES OF PRIVATE PENSIONS: SCHEMES ORGANISED BY EMPLOYERS, SUBJECT TO TAX CONCESSIONS, PROBLEMS WITH SHARE PRICES, LAB 1997 REDUCED TAX CONCESSIONS ON PRIVATE PENSIONS
    LAB PENSION POLICY 97-04: NO RESTORATION OF EARNINGS/PENSION LINK, POOR PENSIONERS TARGETED, STAKEHOLDER PENSIONS, INCREASE IN NI PAYMENTS BOOSTED STATE PENSIONS FUND
    CON POLICIES AFTER 01-04: NO RESTORATION EARNINGS/PENSIONS, INCREASE TAX CONCESSIONS, INCREASE STATE PENSIONS BY CANCELLING BONUSES
    LIB DEM POLICIES 01-04: RESTORE PENSION/EARNINGS LINK, PAY FOR OAP WITH INCREASED TAX, RESTORE TAX CONCESSIONS FOR PRIV., FORCE EMPLOYERS TO BE MORE GENEROUS
    EDUCATION
    EDUCATION ACT 1944-60: TRIPARTITE (GRAMMAR, SECONDARY MODERN, TECHNICAL), SECONDARY EDUCATION FOR ALL BASED ON APTITUDE CRITICISED AS SOCIALLY DIVISIVE
    LABOUR POLICY 1960-94: RESTORE EQUALITY, INCREASE STANDARDS THROUGH MIXED LEARNING
    CONSERVATIVES 1979-88: RAISE STANDARDS, EFFICIENCY, PARENTAL CHOICE (right to choose, assisted places, voucherism)
    CONSERVATIVES 1988-97: NTERNAL MARKET, CONSUMERISM, RAISE STANDARDS/EFFICIENCY (OFSTED, SATS) ALSO - REDUCE LEA CONTROL (LMS, GMS), REDUCE MARGINAL AREAS OF CURRIC (NC) BUT DICHOTOMY – POLITICAL CENTRALISATION + LESS POWER TO LEA
    LABOUR POLICY 1994-04: RAISE STANDARDS IN EDUCATION, RAISE STANDARDS IN TEACHING, TO USE EDUCATION TO REDUCE SOCIAL EXLUSION, PARENTAL CHOICE, MORE HE PLACES, MORE NURSERY PLACES – DONE THROUGH PERFORMANCE RELATED PAY, USE OF TEACHING ASSTS, TARGET SETTING, BEACON SCHOOLS, EARLY YEARS EDUCATION, TOP UP TUITION, SPECIALIST COMPREHENSIVES, PRIVATE FINANCE, LEAGUE TABLES, OFSTED, EXTENSING NATIONAL CURRICULUM, ZERO TOLERANCE OF FAILING SCHOOLS
    CONSERVATIVE 1994-04: LARGE DEGREE OF CONSENSUS
    HEALTH
    CONSERVATIVES 1979-88: MANAGERIALISM, CUT EXPENDITURE
    CONSERVATIVES 1988-97: MANAGERIALISM, INCREASE STANDARDS/LOWER COSTS THROUGH INTERNAL MARKET, LOCAL AUTONOMY/ACCOUNTABILITY, ABOLISHING BUREAUCRACY,
    LABOUR POLICY 1979-97: FUNDING, INTERNAL MKT CREATES TWO TIER HEALTH SYSTEM, STATE INTERVENTION
    LABOUR 1997 ONWARDS: INCREASE STANDARDS AND LOWER COSTS THROUGH COMBINATION OF FUNDING AND MANAGEMENT, DISMANTLE INTERNAL MARKET, LOCAL AUTONOMY/ACCOUNTABILITY (Foundation trusts)
    CONSERVATIVES 1997 ONWARDS: INCREASE STANDARDS AND LOWER COSTS THROUGH COMBINATION OF FUNDING AND MANAGEMENT, NO RETURN TO INTERNAL MARKET, FOUNDATION TRUSTS DON’T DO FAR ENOUGH
    DETAILS OF FOUNDATION TRUSTS: LOCAL ISSUES, FREEDOM OVER STAFF PAY, ACCOUNTABILITY, LESS RED TAPE, MORE CONSUMER FRIENDLY, CHOICE, THEREFORE HOSPITAL TRUSTS ARE ESSENTIALLY FORCED TO BECOME MORE CONSUMER FRIENDLY, ABILITY TO RAISE EXTRA MONEY ON THE OPEN MARKET, ABILITY TO BORROW MONEY, END OF ONE SIZE FITS ALL HEALTH POLICY, BOTTOM UP
    LAW AND ORDER
    CONSRVATIVE POLICY 79-85: INDIVIDUAL RESPONSIBILITY (Punishment justifiable), CUSTODIAL SENTENCES DETERRENT (Short sharp shock), ATTACK CRIME BY ATTACKING INDIVIDUAL
    LABOUR POLICY 79-85: SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY, UNIVERSITY OF CRIME, COMMUNITY CRIME PREVENTION
    CONSRVATIVE POLICY 85-93: SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY, UNIVERSITY OF CRIME, CAUSAL FOCUS COMMUNITY CRIME PREVENTION
    LABOUR POLICY 85-93: SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY, UNIVERSITY OF CRIME, CAUSAL FOCUS, COMMUNITY CRIME PREVENTION
    CONSERVATIVE POLICY 1994-04: TOUGH ON CRIME (Individual responsibility: young offenders, fast tracking, asylum seekers, zero tolerance),
    LABOUR POLICY 1994-7: TOUGH ON CRIME (Individual responsibility: young offenders, fast tracking, asylum seekers, zero tolerance), TOUGH ON CAUSES OF CRIME (Social responsibility: Social exclusion, sure start)
    LABOUR POLICY 1997-01: TARGET SETTING, INCREASES IN SIZE OF POLICE FORCE, INCREASED AGAINST YOUNG OFFENDERS, LONGER CUSTODIAL SENTENCES FOR VIOLENT CRIME, ATTACKS ON CAUSES WAS EDUCATION
    LABOUR POLICY 2001-03: PERFORMANCE TABLES FOR POLICE FORCES, SPLITTING MORE SERIOUS FROM LESS SERIOUS, TREATMENT OF ADDICTS,
    LAW AND ORDER LEGISLATION: 1984 PACE, 1986 PUBLIC ORDER, 1991 1993 CJA, 2001 TERRORISM, 2003 MODE OF TRIAL
    CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT POLICIES: MANAGERIALISM, PERFORMANCE MEASURES, PARSIMONY IN RESOURCE USE
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    Labour Management Policies: Joined Up Government, Use Of Icts, Increase Expenditure, Devolution To Frontline, Performance Measures
    Race And Ethnicity
    Labour Rr 1965: Set Up Rrb, Could Recommend Positive Disc., No Enforcement
    Labour Rr 1968: Some Racial Discrimination Illegal, Enforcement, Case Law Built Up, Crc Set Up – Looked At Broader Issue Of Racism And Discrimination In General
    Labour Rr Act 1976: Most Direct/indirect Discrimination Illegal, Not Public Bodies, Set Up Cre – Enforcement, Social Initiatives, Campaigning And Education
    Labour Rr (a) Act 2000: Public Bodies Given Statutory Duty To Promote Racial Equality, Inspired By Sl Case, Incitement To Racial Hatred Serious Offence, Senior Officers Could Be Held Responsible For Race Disc. Of Subordinates
    Amsterdam 2003: Required Minimum Standard Of Legal Protection For Ethnic Minorities
    Conservative Multiculturalism: Ethnic Minorities Have Civic Duty To Integrate, Abandon Own Cultural Differences In Favour Integration, Excessive Cultural Diversity Causes Social Conflict
    Liberal Multiculturalism: Celebrates Diversity, Multiculturalism Can Only Flourish In Society W. Tolerance And Understanding, Only Requirement Is They Should Obey General Laws Of Citizenship And Not Offend Domestic Laws
    Parekh Commission Multiculturalism: Minority Groups Can Maintain Dual Identity, Should Retain Cultural Distinctiveness – But Also Conform To Core Elements Of British Soc. (distinctive And Integrated)
    Anti-discrimination Philosophies >> Lab: Legislative, Positive Discrimination. Con: Non-legislative, Tebbit, Best Man For Job >> But Post-sl Consensus That Race Relations Is A Genuine Problem
    Functions Of Cre: Offers Advice, Investigates Reported Examples Of Systematic Discrimination, Cre Is Prosecuting Authority, May Sponsor Judicial Reviews, Advises Govt. On Future Leg And Race Policy In General, Liases With Local Racial Equality Councils, Conducts Education Programmes
    Philosophy Of Cre: Britain Is Multicultural, Multicultural = Society Where Coexist In Harmony, Diversity Is Force For Good And Progress, Racism And Racial Disc Are Cultural So Need Non-legislation As Well, Combat Racism In Ed, Housing, Employment And Commerce, Institutional Racism Is Problem. Positive Discrimination And Non-legislative Action Possible Areas For Progress.
    Conclusions Of Macpherson Report: Treat Racial Crimes More Seriously, Police Insufficiently Careful (partly Because Sl Was Black), Relations Between Police And Blacks In Area Poor, Met Pol Accused Of Institutional Racism
    Recommendations Of Macpherson Report: New Category Of Racially Aggravated Crime, All Racist Incidents Recorded By Police, Police Should Monitor Own Race Relations, Programme Of Re-educating Police Officers, Anti-racist Code Of Practice, And Removal Of Known Racist Officers. Recommended Strenuous Efforts In Recruiting Ethnic Minority Officers. All Implemented To A Lesser Or Greater Extent.
    Current Issues On Multiculturalism: Single Faith Schools, Arts/sports/media Should Reflect More Multicultural Society, Many Institutions Dominated By Mainstream Culture, Some Deprived Areas Are Ghetto’s For Ethnic Minorities – Leads To Racial Tensions, Growth In Asylum Seeking Has Created New Tensions
    Summary Of Racial Problems: Institutional Racism Still Exists, Ethnic Minorities Under-represented In Politics/business, Votes For Bnp Increasing, Racism In Football Has Re-emerged, Educational Opportunities For Ethnic Minorities Remain Limited, Resentment Of Asylum Seekers Has Increased, General Issue Of Whether Positive Discrimination Is Desirable Not Resolved, Controversy Over What Constitutes A Genuine Multicultural Society, Rise In Racially Aggravated Crimes.
    Stages Of European Integration
    1985: Schengen: Free Movement – Single Market (opening Up Way For)
    1986: Single European Act – Single Market (commitment To The Creation Of)
    1992: Maastrict
    Institutional Changes: Extending Ep Powers, Became The European Union’
    Broadened Scope Of Union: Greater Powers On Environment. More Control Over Social/ind. Relations Policy ( ‘social Chapter’ From Which The Uk Initially Opted Out). Increased Powers On Consumer Protection. More Control Over Transport And Regional Policy
    Long Term Aims: Possible Future Common Foreign And Defence Policy, Increased Democratisation – Especially Increased Parliamentary Powers, Single European Currency By 1999, Common Legal, Political And Economic Rights For All European Citizens.
    1997: Amsterdam:
    Institutional Change: Powers Of The European Parliament Were Increased Further. Made Eu More Supranational By Giving More Functions , More Qmvs To Com
    Long Term Aims: Decision To Move Towards Cfp And Cd. Idea Of European Citizenship/bill Of Rights Also Raised. Police Co-ordination.
    2000: Nice:
    Broadening Scope Of Union: Integration, Foreign Policy, Enlargement, Defence
    Political Systems Of The Eu
    Key Eu Institutions
    Role Of European Council: · Evolution Of The Eu, Constitutional And Institutional Matters, The Economy And Economies Of The European Union, External Relations, Specific Internal Policy Issues
    Role Of Commission: Proposer And Developer Of Policies And Legislation, Executive Functions, Guardian Of The Legal Framework, External Representative And Negotiator, Mediator And Conciliator·, The Conscience Of The Union.
    Criticism Of Commission: Corrupt, Secretive, Inefficient, Unaccountable, Unrepresentative, Too Large Post-enlargement
    Proposed Reforms To Commission:
    Role Of President Of Commission: Political Figurehead, External Negotiator, Acts As Driving Force, Co-ordinates Work Of Council And Com, Mediates Between Member States, Represents Eu At Major Conferences
    Role Of European Partliament: Co-decision W/ Council Of Ministers, Advisory Position In Legislative/budgetary Process, Hold Executive Accountable
    Criticism Of European Partliament: Not A Legislative Body, Has Only Extreme Powers Of Accountability Over Commission, Overall Profile Weak (low Turnouts And Mandate), Logistical Problems, Too Large To Get A Coherent Direction, Absenteeism Rife, Fragmented, Representation Weak Because Of Large Constituencies
    Proposed Reforms To European Parliament: Extend Policy Areas Impacted By Co-decision, Perhaps Draw Executive From Ep.
    Democratic Accountability Of Eu Institutions
    Democratic Deficit: Non-adherence To Western Principles Of Democracy, Such As Accountability, Representation, Human Rights
    Lack Of Accountability: Ep Only Extreme Powers Over Commission, Secrecy Of Commission, Lack Of Control Of National Ministers In Com. Ecb/ecj/cor/ecosoc Also Lack Accountability
    Lack Of Representation: Ep Has Low Turnout Thus Has Small Mandate, Com Not Drawn From Ep Therefore Has No Collective Mandate, When Com Uses Qmv – Smaller Countries Lose Out
    Lack Of Human Rights: Provision Of Human Rights Varies From State To State, Echr Does Not Go Far Enough
    Reform Into Single Political System: Increase Powers Of Ep, Draw Govt. From Ep, Increase Use Of Referenda
    How Do Member State’s Intepretations Of Subsidiarity Differ
    Germany: Way Of Managing Federal State, Enshrined In German Constitution As Devolution
    Uk/denmark/sweden: Way Of Protecting National Sovereignty. Focus On Level Decision Made At. However, Some Decisions Therefore At Local Govt Level.
    Eu Policy Areas
    Enlargement?
    Advantages: Economic Growth (new: Transition To Market Economy, Old: New Trading Opportunities). Stability. Global Presence. Business Confidence (more Confidence In ‘new’ Countries). Foreign Direct Investment (fdi).
    Disadvantages: Migration, Cap, Regional Aid (increased Contributions Or Existing Countries Get Less), Eu Standards And Systems, Legacy Of Soviet Economy
    Must Lead To: Smooth Progression, Grind To A Halt, Variable Geometry
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    CAP: ATTEMPT TO IMPROVE PRODUCTIVITY, ENSURE FAIR PRICES, STABLE FOOD SUPPLY, INCOME STABILITY FOR FARMERS BY TAKING PRODUCE OFF MARKET AND INTO STORAGE, DIRECT INCOME TO SUPPORT FARMERS, IMPORT RESTRICTIONS, PRODUCTION LIMITS, AND SUBSIDIES,
    PROBLEMS: COST OF RUNNING IT TOO HIGH, ENCOURAGES INEFFICIENCY, CAN BE TO DETRIMENT OF CONSUMERS, WASTEFUL, IN DIRECT CONTRAST TO FREE MARKET, LDC UNABLE TO COMPETE, ENLARGEMENT STRAIN EU BUDGET, BENEFITS SOME COUNTRIES MORE THAN OTHERS
    REFORMS: ABOLITION, GRADUAL PHASING OUT, ENDING PROTECTIONISM AND CONCENTRATE ON ENDING OVERSUPPLY, SUBSIDIES ONLY TO BE USED WHEN PRICES RISE EXCESSIVELY, USING UNACCUMULATED BUFFER STOCKS TO FEED THIRD WORLD
    SINGLE MARKET: THE SINGLE MARKET CAME INTO EFFECT IN JANUARY 1993 AND WORKS ON THE BASIS OF FOUR FREEDOMS - THE FREE MOVEMENT OF GOODS, LABOUR, SERVICES AND CAPITAL THROUGHOUT THE EU
    OPPORTUNITIES: WIDER MARKET, GREATER COMPETITION, CONSUMER PROTECTION, COMMON STANDARDS, MOBILE WORKERS
    THREATS: PROTECTIONISM, CULTURAL DIFFERENCES, CRIMINAL ELEMENTS, DISPARITY BETWEEN MEMBER STATES
    SINGLE CURRENCY
    ADVANTAGES: REDUCTION OF OPPORTUNITY COST, STABILITY, POLITICAL DECISIONS, CUT BUSINESS COSTS, LONGER TERM DECISIONS, COMPETITION
    DISADVANTAGES: ABOLITION, GRADUAL PHASING OUT, ENDING PROTECTIONISM AND CONCENTRATE ON ENDING OVERSUPPLY, SUBSIDIES ONLY TO BE USED WHEN PRICES RISE EXCESSIVELY, USING UNACCUMULATED BUFFER STOCKS TO FEED THIRD WORLD
    TAX HARMONISATION: TAX HARMONISATION CRITICAL TO OPERATION OF SINGLE MARKET SO THAT GOODS/SERVICES/PEOPLE /CAPITAL CAN MOVE FREELY AROUND EU. HARMONISATION OF TAXES MEANS MAKING THE LEVELS OF TAXATION MORE CONSISTENT IN EACH COUNTRY.
    ADVANTAGES: UNPOPULAR DECISION, INTEREST RATE, MORTGAGES, RESTRICT THE AMOUNT OF LONG TERM BORROWING UK COULD DO, BRITISH ECONOMY IS DOING WELL AT THE MOMENT
    DISADVANTAGES: A 'STEP TOO FAR', SOME MAY WISH TO USE LOWER CORPORATION TAX TO ENCOURAGE FIRMS, FIRMS WILL TEND TO ESTABLISH THEMSELVES IN CLUSTERS IN ORDER TO BENEFIT FROM HAVING SIMILAR BUSINESSES IN THE SAME AREA, IF MEMBER STATES ARE ABLE TO INCREASE TAXES, THEY ARE BETTER ABLE TO CONTROL THEIR BUDGET DEFICITS
    EU STANDING ARMY:
    ADVANTAGES: GREATER EU STABILITY, SUPRANATIONAL = RAPID RESPONSE, ECONOMIES OF SCALE, BREAK DOMINANCE OF USA
    DISADVANTAGES: LOSS OF SOVEREIGNTY IN MOST TRADITIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE NATION STATE [SUPRANATIONAL], WOULD NEED A DECISION MAKING ORGANISATION (AC/ABILITY), NEUTRAL STATES: IRELAND AND SWITZERLAND
    PROBLEMS WITH COMMON FOREIGN POLICY: OWN ALLIANCES AND INTERESTS, CLUMSY PROCESS, DIFFICULT TO REACH AGREEMENT, RELATIONSHIP WITH NATO, SOVEREIGNTY
    ENVIRONMENT:
    ROLES OF COMMISSION IN DEALING WITH ENVIRONMENT: WATER POLLUTION, AIR POLLUTION, BIODIVERSITY – TRYING TO KEEP A WIDE RANGE OF SPECIES ALIVE, PRESERVATION OF FISH STOCKS AND SPECIES IN GENERAL, GM CROPS
    PROBLEMS: ENFORCEMENT, PRESSURE GROUPS, COMMERCIAL INTERESTS, NATIONAL INTERESTS (TO MOVE FORWARD POLICY MUST BE MADE SUPRANATIONAL)
    REGIONAL POLICY
    PRINCIPLES: PROBLEMS: IS BEST WAY TO HELP THESE COUNTRIES TO BAIL THEM OUT, INVOLVES TRANSFER FROM RICHER TO POORER AREAS, ENLARGEMENT
    DRAFT EU CONSTITUTION:
    PRINCIPLES: PRESIDENT, FOREIGN MINISTER, EXPANDED COMMISSION, DEFENCE/FOREIGN POLICY, EXTENSIONS OF QMV, DOUBLE QMV, BILL OF RIGHTS?, GREATER POWERS TO EP OVER LEGISLATION
    PROBLEMS: DOMINATION BY LARGER STATES, REFERENDUMS, DEF/FOREIGN POLICY DIFFICULT TO AGREE, PRESIDENT WILL BE HIGHLY CONTENTIOUS
    EU CITIZENSHIP:
    PRINCIPLES: ALL CITIZENS OF EU HAVE FULL DUAL CITIZENSHIP, EQUAL RIGHTS THROUGHOUT EU, WOULD REQUIRE BILL OF RIGHTS TO BE ADDED TO ALL MEMBER STATES LAWS, COMMON RULES FOR HOW TO BECOME CITIZEN OF EU POLICY
    PROBLEMS: ALL EU WOULD HAVE TO GRANT RIGHTS TO PERSON WHO BECAME CITIZEN OF ANY MEMBER STATE, IMMIGRATION/ASYLUM SEEKERS, PROBLEMS AGREEING RIGHTS FOR WHOLE COMMUNITY

    AND SOME OF UNIT 6...


    IMPACT OF EU MEMBERSHIP UPON INSTITUTIONS AND THE POLICY PROCESS
    IMPACT OF THE EU ON POLITICAL PARTIES
    DIVIDED INTERNALLY – CON (Voting Maastricht, Resignations (Lawson, Howe), Elections lost – over Europe, weak/divided LAB – initially more than Con. – but less post 1975. But more than usual w/ large majority. LIB DEM – Not divided, Raison d’etre (Gang of 4, Paving motion – Maastricht)
    HAD TO WORK ALONGSIDE EU COUNTERPARTS – PAN EUROPEAN CAMPAIGNING (Green Party), EUROPEAN PARTY GROUPS IN EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT
    IMPACT OF THE EU ON PRESSURE GROUPS
    OUTSIDERS IN BRITAIN MAY BE INSIDERS IN EU: Trade Unions/Agricultural groups
    INSIDERS IN BRITAIN MAY BE OUTSIDERS IN EU: CBI/Tobacco lobby
    SECTIONAL GROUPS NOT GREATLY AFFECTED: Represent interests of section of society – have to look for favourable treatment
    PROMOTIONAL GROUPS NOT GREATLY AFFECTED: Simply have to move campaigns to Europe, more expensive to mount campaigns in Europe
    GROUPS HAVE HAD TO MOVE OPERATIONS TO EU: Some groups functions not w/ EU so not greatly affected- Shelter, CPAG. Some firmly are- Fisheries/Agriculture
    GROUPS MUST BE AWARE IF QMV OR OMV: QMV (British govt can be outvoted- must lobby others) OMV – may persuade Brit. Govt to use veto
    GROUPS INTERESTED IN RIGHTS CAN GO TO EUROPEAN COURTS: Charter 88, Help the Aged, Fox hunting
    FORCED TO WORK WITH OTHER EUROPEAN GROUPS: Producers, transport, farmers all become more influential by going Europe wide. With CoR – regions become pressure groups
    IMPACT OF THE EU ON PRIME MINISTERIAL GOVERNMENT
    LOSS OF PRIME MINISTERIAL SOVEREIGNTY
    ACTS AS A REPRESENTATIVE FOR UK ON EU STAGE
    DECISIONS NOW TAKEN AT EU LEVEL
    INCREASED ROLE FOR CABINET
    IMPACT OF THE EU ON THE CONSTITUTION
    DIRECT – SOVEREIGNTY - HAD TO ACCEPT SUPREMACY OF EU LAW (Factortame, Asylum)
    DIRECT – SOVEREIGNTY – HAVE POOLED SOVEREIGNTY IN SOME AREAS (Environment)
    DIRECT – SOVEREIGNTY – HAVE SACRIFICED SOVEREIGNTY IN SOME AREAS (Trade/Agriculture)
    INDIRECT – CON REFORM – DEVOLUTION (Inspired by principle of subsidiarity)
    INDIRECT – CON REFORM – PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION (Use of PR devolved ass. because every other country apart from use using PR)
    INDIRECT – CON REFORM – LORDS REFORM (Inspired by stronger foreign second chambers)
    INDIRECT – CON REFORM – HUMAN RIGHTS ACT (now accepted tradition of a codified set of rights through ECHR. Parliamentary declaration – declaration has to say – this does not take into account the HR Act)
    IMPACT OF THE EU ON CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM
    DEVOLUTION, PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION, HOUSE OF LORDS REFORM, HUMAN RIGHTS ACT
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    Wow, I think i love you, here, have maximum respect for that lot!!
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    Thanks. No problem mate- and good luck!
    • Thread Starter
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    LOL that was IMMENSE. Did you put all your notes on a computer then C+P?

    I felt quite confident until I read all that, it made me realise that there are areas where my knowledge is weak .
    • Thread Starter
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    Actually, after reading it again I think that I will be ok. Most of it I know and the areas for confusion were more regarding the way some of it was phrased.
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    Lol yeah I just copied and pasted my notes. That wasn't a UKL special lol..

    I know what you mean ... I by no means know all of it. Reading it myself makes me feel nervous. If you want it in a word doc by the way, its attached..
    Attached Files
  1. File Type: doc revisionpoliticsnotes.doc (53.0 KB, 121 views)
 
 
 

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