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    • Thread Starter

    can someone please explain to me in a little paragraph, how vaccines work, to as level standard

    Vaccines contain antigens (immunogenic proteins) of the pathogen they protect against.
    These antigens are recognised by the immune system. The reaction of interest is activation of B lymphocytes into plasma cells that produce antibodies and give memory cells. The memory cells stay for a very long time and the difference is that they can be activated very fast compared to naive B cells (cells that never encountered the antigen). The antibodies they produce are also better at stopping the pathogen. So when you are vaccinated e.g. Against rubella, when you are infected with the actual rubella bug you don't need to wait for the slow activation of naive B cells that can take days, giving the opportunity to the pathogen to make you very ill in the meantime; instead your memory cells start dividing very fast and producing antibodies not giving the chance to the pathogen to multiply a lot and cause many problems, so you only get mild symptoms.
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