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    So in NO3- N has an oxidation of +5
    I was initially confused because I thought NO3- had an extra electron since it was a negative ion. So I thought that since normal 03 would be -6 an extra electron must mean that it will be a -7 and so N must be +6. +6 +-7 = -1

    But having thought about it the overall charge is -1 not just for the 03 so if O3 is -6 then N has to be +5 for the overall charge to be -1

    What I don't get is is why NO3 is 1- in the first place. Does nitrogen not fill its shell? Does oxygen not form a double bond?

    I thought ions had extra or less electrons. So why is nh4 a nh4+ ion if it has 8 electrons and has gained 3. Where has it lost an electron.

    I am really confused. Any help is appreciated.

    Thanks!
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    This should help:

    http://www.kentchemistry.com/links/b...sdotstruct.htm
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    Very useful thanks. But it still doesn't answer my question. So an example he used is H30+ . Is it +1 because the oxygen covalent shares 3 electrons with the 3 hydrogen atomsand has 1 lone pair so 5 electrons are used. Has it lost the extra electron to become an ion? Oxygen has 6 electrons in its outer shell
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    H3O+

    Total number of p+: 3x1 + 8 = 11
    Total number of e-: 10
    +1 charge

    Water has 2x lone pairs and 2x standard covalent bonds i.e. 2x shared pairs.
    H3O+ has 1x lone pair, 2x covalent bonds and 1x dative covalent bond to an H+

    If you tried to add a third H atom, there would be 9e- in O's outer shell. Not good.
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    (Original post by Pigster)
    H3O+

    Total number of p+: 3x1 + 8 = 11
    Total number of e-: 10
    +1 charge

    Water has 2x lone pairs and 2x standard covalent bonds i.e. 2x shared pairs.
    H3O+ has 1x lone pair, 2x covalent bonds and 1x dative covalent bond to an H+

    If you tried to add a third H atom, there would be 9e- in O's outer shell. Not good.
    I can't seem to figure out how you got 10 electrons in total. 2 covalent = 4 + 1 line pair = 6. And dative is 2 as well right?

    Thanks for your time
 
 
 
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