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    • Howthe concentration gradients of O2 and CO2 are maintainedin the lungs and active muscle tissues
    Does anyone have any idea?
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    The concentration gradients of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the alveoli are maintained by two processes. The blood transport of the capillaries and by ventilation; the air in and out of lungs regularly. Over large distances carbon dioxide and oxygen cannot be diffused so the transport system prevents the build up and maintains the conc. gradient. RBCs contain haemoglobin which is strongly associated with oxygen + carbon dioxide so providing greater efficiency.
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    Hi I am really stuck on how the concentration gradient of oxygen and carbon dioxide are maintained in active muscle tissue. its something to do with a mechanism

    Thanks for the reply
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    You'd expect O2 conc to decrease as the muscle is using the oxygen at a faster rate, and CO2 to increase as a byproduct. Our bodies have a compensatory mechanism though:
    - Blood vessels dilate within the muscle tissue. This means more blood carrying O2 not only enters the muscle tissue, but also means more CO2 can be transported out.
    - Breathing rate increases. This means you can saturate your blood with O2, more so than if you were breathing at a slower rate, and that you can expel CO2 at a faster rate too. Both of these maximise the capacity at which respiration can occur in muscle tissue.
    - Heart rate/blood pressure increases. This means the above can happen at a faster rate.
    - Your muscles have myoglobin, which is like haemoglobin, but binds O2 much more easily. So in effect, oxygen is snatched by muscle tissue from the haemoglobin in your blood.

    There are lots of other mechanisms but these are the main ones (if I can remember correctly).
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    Thank you I really appreciate your reply!
 
 
 
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