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    can someone please break down the nitrogen and carbon cycle for me please? and any predictions for what will be coming up in this years B1 paper for edexcel?

    Carbon cycle:
    First I'd look at the Causes:
    *Burning of fossil fuels
    *Respiration of organisms
    *Organisms that eat plants transfer carbon.
    *Chalk dissolves when exposed to slightly acidic rain. This releases more carbon in the atmosphere.

    Then I'd look at how it is reduced out:
    *plants absorb carbon dioxide. Enables their cells to produce sugars from the process of photosynthesis. Sugars form lipids (fats and oils)

    The main 2 process of transferring carbon are RESPIRATION and PHOTOSYNTHESIS.

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    Nitrogen cycle:
    *Plants and animals can't absorb nitrogen as a gas. Therefore, they need to be in the form of nitrates.
    *2 kinds of bacteria who change nitrogen gas into nitrates.
    *1, nitrogen fixing bacteria, found in root nodules in leguminous plants. They convert (fix) nitrogen gas into nitrates for the plant. (Mutualistic relationship)
    *2 nitrifying bacteria, converts ammonia from decaying plants and other waste into nitrates. The nitrates are then absorbed by the plants.

    *Animals obtain nitrates from eating plants. This transfers nitrogen from the plant to the animal. This transfer would carry on as the animals eat other animals, still transferring the nitrogen.

    * lightning can break apart nitrogen molecules. The nitrogen molecules which are broken then react with the oxygen in the atmosphere. This forms nitrogen oxide. Which then dissolves in rain drops.

    *The nitrates which aren't absorbed by plants are release back into the atmosphere. This is done by DE-NITRIFYING BACTERIA. The bacteria converts nitrates back into nitrogen gas which is then release back into the atmosphere.

    Hope this helps. 😊
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