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    I found this really helpful for the B1 exam (or at least I would have done if the exam had anything to do with the specification :/) so I was wondering if anyone wanted to do it for chemistry tomorrow.

    You post a question, and the person after you answers the question and writes the next question. Then the next person answers that question and writes a new question, and so on...

    It's useful because you find questions you'd completely forgotten about and it lets you test your knowledge.
    --> Describe how a stable emulsion is formed between an oil and water using an emulsifier. (4 marks) <--
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    (Original post by CaptErin)
    I found this really helpful for the B1 exam (or at least I would have done if the exam had anything to do with the specification :/) so I was wondering if anyone wanted to do it for chemistry tomorrow.

    You post a question, and the person after you answers the question and writes the next question. Then the next person answers that question and writes a new question, and so on...

    It's useful because you find questions you'd completely forgotten about and it lets you test your knowledge.
    --> Describe how a stable emulsion is formed between an oil and water using an emulsifier. (4 marks) <--
    Hey, an emulsifier molecule is added which has a hydrophillic head which is attracted to water. They have a hydrophobic tail which is repelled by water and goes into the oil droplet. They prevent the oil droplets joining together and separating out.
    Question: describe the properties of the fractions that condense at the top of the fractionating column (3 marks)
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    (Original post by Wordnerd2)
    Hey, an emulsifier molecule is added which has a hydrophillic head which is attracted to water. They have a hydrophobic tail which is repelled by water and goes into the oil droplet. They prevent the oil droplets joining together and separating out.
    Question: describe the properties of the fractions that condense at the top of the fractionating column (3 marks)
    Just learnt this! Lower vicosity, lower boiling points, higher flammability, so they make good fuels

    Describe both methods of cracking (4 marks)
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    Ahh this is what I struggle with, fractions are heated to vaporise them then passed over a hot catalyst or mixed with steam and reacted at high temperatures
    Question: Describe the two ways ethanol can be made (4 marks also)


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    (Original post by Wordnerd2)
    Ahh this is what I struggle with, fractions are heated to vaporise them then passed over a hot catalyst or mixed with steam and reacted at high temperatures
    Question: Describe the two ways ethanol can be made (4 marks also)


    Posted from TSR Mobile
    ethanol can be made by hydration of ethene with a steam in the presence of a catalyst
    it can also be made by fermentation with yeast using renewable sources
    (idk correct me if im wrong haha)

    question: the use of hydrocarbons as fuels can lead to acid rain explain how this arises?
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    (Original post by jaebum)
    ethanol can be made by hydration of ethene with a steam in the presence of a catalyst
    it can also be made by fermentation with yeast using renewable sources
    (idk correct me if im wrong haha)

    question: the use of hydrocarbons as fuels can lead to acid rain explain how this arises?
    If impurities of sulfur are burnt, sulphur dioxide is released. This then rises and mixes with clouds to form dilute sulphuric acid, which falls as acid rain.
    Another way acid rain can occur is if the hydrocarbon is burnt at high temperatures, oxides of nitrogen form. This rises and mixes with clouds to form dilute nitric acid and then this falls as acid rain.

    Q. Pros and cons of biodiesel, ethanol, and hydrogen gas? (6 mark)
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    (Original post by siobhanx13)
    If impurities of sulfur are burnt, sulphur dioxide is released. This then rises and mixes with clouds to form dilute sulphuric acid, which falls as acid rain.
    Another way acid rain can occur is if the hydrocarbon is burnt at high temperatures, oxides of nitrogen form. This rises and mixes with clouds to form dilute nitric acid and then this falls as acid rain.

    Q. Pros and cons of biodiesel, ethanol, and hydrogen gas? (6 mark)
    Biodiesel
    Pro: No need to convert car engines before running on biodiesel
    Con: Expensive to produce

    Ethanol
    Pro: Carbon neutral
    Con: Not widely available

    Hydrogen gas
    Pro: Originates fro water so it is widely available. It is a clean source of energy?
    Con: Highly flammable. Hard to store.

    Describe the two ways plant oils can be extracted.
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    (Original post by siobhanx13)
    If impurities of sulfur are burnt, sulphur dioxide is released. This then rises and mixes with clouds to form dilute sulphuric acid, which falls as acid rain.
    Another way acid rain can occur is if the hydrocarbon is burnt at high temperatures, oxides of nitrogen form. This rises and mixes with clouds to form dilute nitric acid and then this falls as acid rain.

    Q. Pros and cons of biodiesel, ethanol, and hydrogen gas? (6 mark)
    Ethanol: Pros - the CO2 that is released is carbon neutral as it is reabsorbed by plants in photosynthesis.
    Cons - for ethanol to be used in vehicles, engines need to be converted to work with it. Also as demand for it increases; farmers will begin to make ethanol which will increase food prices
    Biodiesel: Pros- carbon neutral, no need for engines to be converted, less sulfur dioxide and particulates produced
    Cons- cant make enough to completely replace diesel
    Hydrogen G- Pros- hydrogen + air = water meaning it is harmless
    Cons - you need a special and expensive engine, hydrogen isnt widely available and it is hard to store
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    (Original post by Dizgurl)
    Biodiesel
    Pro: No need to convert car engines before running on biodiesel
    Con: Expensive to produce

    Ethanol
    Pro: Carbon neutral
    Con: Not widely available

    Hydrogen gas
    Pro: Originates fro water so it is widely available. It is a clean source of energy?
    Con: Highly flammable. Hard to store.

    Describe the two ways plant oils can be extracted.
    Hydrogenation
    Squeezing the plant

    Explain the primordial soup theory
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    (Original post by 4bdur)
    Hydrogenation
    Squeezing the plant

    Explain the primordial soup theory
    Early atmosphere contained methane , ammonia hydrogen and nitrogen. Lightning had struck ( electricity) which resulted in the formation of amino acids that was collected in a primordial soup. From this primordial soup amino acids combined to form organic matter that evolved into simple life forms.

    (hydrogenation is used to harden unsaturated fats/oils....not extracting plant oils i don't think )

    Give the advantages and disadvantages of concrete limestone and cement.
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    (Original post by Dizgurl)
    Early atmosphere contained methane , ammonia hydrogen and nitrogen. Lightning had struck ( electricity) which resulted in the formation of amino acids that was collected in a primordial soup. From this primordial soup amino acids combined to form organic matter that evolved into simple life forms.

    (hydrogenation is used to harden unsaturated fats/oils....not extracting plant oils i don't think ) CORRECTION- dissolving the plant in a solvent (NOT HYDROGENATION)

    Give the advantages and disadvantages of concrete limestone and cement.
    CORRECTION- dissolving the plant in a solvent (NOT HYDROGENATION)
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    (Original post by Dizgurl)
    Biodiesel
    Pro: No need to convert car engines before running on biodiesel
    Con: Expensive to produce

    Ethanol
    Pro: Carbon neutral
    Con: Not widely available

    Hydrogen gas
    Pro: Originates fro water so it is widely available. It is a clean source of energy?
    Con: Highly flammable. Hard to store.

    Describe the two ways plant oils can be extracted.
    It is clean because the only product when burnt is water and energy
    and well done
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    (Original post by 4bdur)
    Ethanol: Pros - the CO2 that is released is carbon neutral as it is reabsorbed by plants in photosynthesis.
    Cons - for ethanol to be used in vehicles, engines need to be converted to work with it. Also as demand for it increases; farmers will begin to make ethanol which will increase food prices
    Biodiesel: Pros- carbon neutral, no need for engines to be converted, less sulfur dioxide and particulates produced
    Cons- cant make enough to completely replace diesel
    Hydrogen G- Pros- hydrogen + air = water meaning it is harmless
    Cons - you need a special and expensive engine, hydrogen isnt widely available and it is hard to store
    well done
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    can someone please explain fractional distillation to me?
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    (Original post by jaebum)
    can someone please explain fractional distillation to me?
    -Crude oil is heated until it vaporises.
    -Vapours are sent through pipes into the bottom of the fractionating column.
    -The fractionating column is hotter near the bottom and cooler near the top
    -Different hydrocarbons/substances condense at different temperatures.
    -Short chain hydrocarbons have a low boiling point so they condense near the top of the column
    -Long chain hydrocarbons have a high boiling point so they condense near the bottom of the column.
    -Condensed hydrocarbons are then collected on condensing trays which are eventually piped out of the column.
    -Waste substances/ sludge/bitumen is piped down through the bottom of the column.
    -Waste gases are piped out at the top of the column
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    I have the same exam tomorrow lol. I revised a lot but i'm still nervous
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    Some of the answers here are quite intimidating. They're quite elaborate and making me feel like what I know is not enough lol... bad times.
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    Good luck everyone 😊
 
 
 
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