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Compare and contrast the formation and landscapes of Iceland and Hawaii. Watch

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    Iceland was formed at a mid-ocean ridge (MOR), called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a divergent plate boundary, where the North American Plate is moving away from the Eurasian Plate. At the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (the MOR), convection currents in the Earth's mantle are moving the two plates apart, reducing the pressure beneath them at the ridge. The reduction in pressure allows the mantle below the ridge to partially melt to form magma, which rises up between the plates to the surface. After it has been erupted, the magma cools, forming new crust. The new crust built up over time to form the island Iceland. Iceland also sits above what is known as a hot spot, which also contributed to its formation.

    Hawaii was formed because it sits at a hot spot above a mantle plume. A mantle plume is a stationary area of high heat flow within Earth's mantle. As the mantle plume flow reaches the base of the Earth's crust, the reduction in pressure causes the mantle around it to partially melt, producing large volumes of ultramafic magma, which moves through the crust upwards to the surface. The magma is erupted onto the surface (the sea floor), cools and then builds up over time to form an island. As the plate (in this case, the Pacific plate) moves due to convection currents in the mantle, the islands also move with the plate, leading to the formation of new islands as the island which is currently above the mantle plume moves away from it. This process formed the Hawaiian island chain.

    I hope that helps! I'm not sure about the landscapes, I guess you could say that Iceland is covered in glaciers and ice caps, however Hawaii doesn't have any ice coverage?
 
 
 
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