OCR AS History F961/02 Foreign and Imperial Policies 1945-1990 25th May

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ArcticSlayer
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I know there's hardly anyone doing this exam (since it's the old spec) but if there are any does anyone have any predictions or best guesses as to what may come up in the exam? Thanks.
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rachelthehuman
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I am resitting this one tomorrow. My teacher and I think something about the differences between Labour and Conservatives might some up and it hasn't been done for a long time. Also as decolonisation didn't come up last year that might be a possibility, but really I have no idea what to expect. Hopefully it will be something relatively easy so that the exam board can boast about how much more challenging their new A-levels are in comparison
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ArcticSlayer
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(Original post by rachelthehuman)
I am resitting this one tomorrow. My teacher and I think something about the differences between Labour and Conservatives might some up and it hasn't been done for a long time. Also as decolonisation didn't come up last year that might be a possibility, but really I have no idea what to expect. Hopefully it will be something relatively easy so that the exam board can boast about how much more challenging their new A-levels are in comparison
I hope your teacher is right! That would be a very nice question. I hope the exam board does that too lol, Thatcher foreign policy would be a good question also.
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rachelthehuman
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(Original post by ArcticSlayer)
I hope your teacher is right! That would be a very nice question. I hope the exam board does that too lol, Thatcher foreign policy would be a good question also.
Thatcher would be great! Nuclear weapons is a bit iffy though... Still, I'm hoping that everyone who says A2 students always do better in their resits are correct :P
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ArcticSlayer
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(Original post by rachelthehuman)
Thatcher would be great! Nuclear weapons is a bit iffy though... Still, I'm hoping that everyone who says A2 students always do better in their resits are correct :P
Yeah I'd probably struggle with nuclear weapons, I just don't think I'd have enough to write about.

In general people should do better in retakes, not only because they've done it before but because you come into the exam knowing what to expect. This isn't always true because I've done worse in one retake because I expected to be a breeze

I'm quite worried about decolonisation, I'm not ready for it at all.
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Lambylittle
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Praying for Thatcher and Decolonisation
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Lambylittle
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(Original post by rachelthehuman)
Thatcher would be great! Nuclear weapons is a bit iffy though... Still, I'm hoping that everyone who says A2 students always do better in their resits are correct :P
My teacher's convinced nuclear won't come up
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rachelthehuman
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(Original post by ArcticSlayer)
Yeah I'd probably struggle with nuclear weapons, I just don't think I'd have enough to write about.

In general people should do better in retakes, not only because they've done it before but because you come into the exam knowing what to expect. This isn't always true because I've done worse in one retake because I expected to be a breeze

I'm quite worried about decolonisation, I'm not ready for it at all.
Nuclear weapons is bit of a broad topic with not a whole lot of dates to base arguments on... Europe would be an interesting one to do.

Yes, I am a bit worried I haven't put as much effort into the retakes as I should have Hopefully the exam board will go easy on us!

I'm quite confident on the reasons for decolonisation, but I struggle to remember what happened in each of the countries...
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ArcticSlayer
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(Original post by rachelthehuman)
Nuclear weapons is bit of a broad topic with not a whole lot of dates to base arguments on... Europe would be an interesting one to do.

Yes, I am a bit worried I haven't put as much effort into the retakes as I should have Hopefully the exam board will go easy on us!

I'm quite confident on the reasons for decolonisation, but I struggle to remember what happened in each of the countries...
Do you have any revision materials or essays that you are using to prepare for this exam? There isn't much online for this specific exam...
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Lambylittle
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Since 2010:

EUROPE- 7/9 exams
NUCLEAR- 4/9 exams
THATCHER- 7/9 exams
WORLD POWER- 3/9 exams
DECOLONISATION- 2/4 exams (specifically. have been links with Europe questions before)
LABOUR/CONSERVATIVE TO 1963- 4/9 exams

Judging by this I would predict that decolonisation and world power are likely, and I also think there will be a labour/conservative question as there hasn't been one for a long time.
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Lambylittle
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(Original post by ArcticSlayer)
Do you have any revision materials or essays that you are using to prepare for this exam? There isn't much online for this specific exam...
Here's a few reision notes

Britain & Europe (1945 - 1987):
1945- Britain thinks empire will solve economic problems
1947- OEEC (Organisation for European Economic Coorporation) is set up to distribute $17 billion Marshall Aid
1950- Schuman plan suggests supranational sharing of coal and steel - not in Britain's economic interests
1952- ECSC (European Coal and Steel community) is set up - France, Italy, Germany, and Benelux (Belgium, Luxembourg, and Netherlands) - No Britain
1955- Messina Conference - Britain doesn't take it seriously and sends Junior Board of Trade Official - Talks of creating EEC
1956- Suez Crisis
1957- EEC (European Economic Community) created - France, Italy, Germany, Benelux - No Britain
1960- EFTA (European Free Trade Association created - Britain, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Portugal, Switzerland,and Austria - this is pretty much useless
1961- Britain applies to join EEC under MacMillan - JFK supports this. He doesn't want Europe becoming too powerful and wants Britain to try and control it
1963- Rejected from EEC by DeGaulle
1967- Britain applies to EEC again under Wilson and is rejected due to weak economy and relationship with America
1969- DeGaulle retires and dies in 1971
1970- Britain applies to EEC again under Heath and accepts poor conditions to join as Britain are economically weak
1984- Thatcher negotiates a £1.5 billion rebate from EEC as Britain don't benefit from CAP
1987- Britain sign Single European Act which paves the way to the EU in 1993


Britain and nuclear weapons (1945 - 1984):
1946- MacMahon act is signed by Truman to end Manhattan Project - US withholds nuclear research from Britain as they 'didn't contribute enough'
1947- Attlee announces that Britain will make their own nuclear weapons
1952- UK successfully tests their first nuclear bomb - V Bombers are used to carry them, but is soon realised that they can be shot down by USSR
1955- Blue Streak programme proves Britain's capabilities to USA
1958- McMahon act is reviewed and USA share nuclear technology with Britain again - CND (Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament) is formed
1960- Blue Streak is cancelled - Britain buy Skybolt from USA
1962- USA cancels Skybolt - Britain buys Polaris Submarines from USA under conditions - they need JFK's permission to fire and only under "supreme national interests"
1981- USA store 96 cruise missiles at Greenham Common - CND protest
1982- Thatcher buys Trident II from USA for £10 billion (this is cheap)
1984- Thatcher warns Reagan to not rely on SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) to protect USA from USSR - if USA stop making nuclear weapons, then USSR will turn to ground warfare, threatening Europe, rather than the mental warfare that was the nuclear arms race


Decolonisation (1945 - 1979):
1941- Atlantic Charter - Britain indicate that they will decolonise
1945-End of war - USA expect Britain to decolonise
1947- India - Nationalism in India after WWII led by Gandhi and Jinnah
- India want independence as reward for helping in the war which leads to general strikes (India is unprofitable)
- Civil war mounting between Muslims and Hindus
- Britain is bankrupt from war, no money to control
- Indianisation of police, army, and civil services means India can rule itself
1957- Malaya - 1948 Malayan Emergency - Britain crush communism. USA preferred Empire over communism
- Stability and ethnic unity by 1953
- Economic and political need to decolonise after Suez
1963- Kenya - Mau Mau & Kikuya tribes cost £10,000 to kill per person
- Risk of civil war between tribes
- Economic and political reasons to decolonise
- Winds of Change speech (1960), based on Colonial review, says Britain will give independence to any African nation that wants it
- Kikuya & Mau Mau tribes unite through hatred of Britain
1979- Rhodesia - Britain don't give independence due to no democracy and no majority rule
- Leads to Ian Smith's Universal Declaration of Independence (Rhodesia declare themselves independent from British Empire)
- Civil war = 20,000 dead
- Lancaster House talks = Thatcher puts Zanu PF (Marxist, not soviet communist) in charge and ends civil war


Thatchers foreign policy
Communism- Wanted to end communism
- Played key role in negotiations between Gorbachev and Reagan
- Backs anti-communist regimes in Eastern-Europe
- Overlooks USA's invasion of Grenada as it was to stop communism
World Status- Solved Rhodesia crisis and gave her confidence to be independent in foreign policy
- Falklands showed that clear aim for world status/national interests wouldn't be compromised by USA. Was prepared to fight alone but USA finally offers public support
- Believed world status relied on nuclear deterrent. Increased defense spending and used close relationship with USA to secure Trident II. This may explain why Britain let USA store cruise missiles in Greenham Common
- Backs USA against Libya. Is criticised, but is consistent with aims to end IRA (Libya was funding IRA)
Europe- Criticised the Foreign Office for being too pro-European & underestimating importance of USA. Sacks Foreign Secretaries for this
- Prefers USA and NATO
- Secures £1.5 billion rebate over Common Agricultural Policy from EEC (viewed negatively by EEC, but good for Britain)
- Supports Eastern European EEC applications as it will weaken EEC
- Signs Single European Act as she thinks it'll be good for Britain's economy


Britain as a world power between 1945 - 1990
What makes a world power?
-Military strength
-Influence
-Strong allies
-Strong economy

Military strength- Initially too weak to protect Europe: Iron Curtain speech led to Truman Doctrine
- Too weak to help Greece, led to Marshall Aid
- Needed creation of NATO
However
- Britain had a nuclear bomb,
- Was successful at making a stand against communism
- Supported USA in the Korean war
- Post-suez relied on US technology for nuclear deterrent, but maintained a strong defense regardless
- Falklands victory
- Support for US in Libya
- Persuaded Reagan to take a more aggressive stance in Cold War/abandon SDI
World Influence- Britain couldn't hold India because it was ungovernable but retained it in the commonwealth
- Maintained world influence through the commonwealth: most countries joined
- Had power to solve Rhodesia
- Role in the Cold War: supported Eastern-European anti-communist & negotiated between Reagan and Gorbachev
Strong allies- Was able to influence US policy through Iron curtain speech
- Not a one way relationship though: gave support in Korea
- Repaired relationship with US after Suez
- Shared nuclear technology
- Influenced Reagan in the Cold War
- Supported USA in Libya
But
- EEC rejections due to economic weakness highlight a decline.
Economy- Too poor to survive post-war and rely on Marshall Aid
- Situation worsened by Suez
- MacMillan's colonial review exposed weakness in the Empire
- Too poor to join EEC; rejected
- Nuclear technology bought from USA as too expensive to conduct own research and develop weapons (e.g. Blue Streak) and is left reliant on the USA
But
- Economy improves under Thatcher as shown by nuclear spending increase


Labour and conservative foreign policy between 1945 - 1964
Policies:
-Europe
-Empire

++-Relationship with USA
-Nuclear Weapons

Europe:
Labour- Reluctant to engage in supranational politics (EEC)
- Support OEEC but not the Schuman Plan (Goes on to form the ECSC)
- Europe isn't economically beneficial to Britain
Conservative- reluctant to engage initially as economic interests lie elsewhere (shown by attitude in Messina)
- Post-Suez; policy changes: EFTA 1960 & EEC application 1961 prove MacMillan's reassessment of British policy
Change?- Significant change due to economy rather than political beliefs of the parties

Empire:
Labour- Keen to retain empire; seen as answer to economic problems
- India given independence due to ungovernability but others kept (Malayan Emergency settled)
Conservative- Little change at first, but Suez is catalyst for second wave of decolonisation (Malaya)
- Colonial review/wind of change speech confirms that Britain no longer believes the empire/commonwealth is the answer & turns to EEC (Kenya, Sudan, Uganda given independence & Britain applies to EEC)
Change?- Significant change due to economic circumstances rather than political beliefs of the parties


Relationship with USA:
Labour- Britain realises weakness of itself and Europe without USA and bases policy around gaining US support: Iron Curtain speech and withdrawl from Greece establish the Truman doctrine and Marshall Aid
- Shows independence by recognising communist China but repairs relationship through Korean war
- Also show Independence by announcing that they will create their own nuclear bomb
Conservative- continuation of close US relationship initially but relationship damaged by Suez
- Britain builds to repair it and builds nuclear deterrent around US technology (review of McMahon Act and Polaris submarines)
Change?- Some change due to Suez crisis but Britain repairs relationship to help its other foreign policy aims

Nuclear Weapons:
Labour- Britain forced to pursue independent nuclear deterrent by McMahon Act
- Nuclear weapons are deemed cheaper then conventional army
Conservative- Policy continued by Conservative government

- Britain invest in V Bombers and Blue Streak but economic concerns and failing technology see Britain purchase US technology by 1960 (Skybolt and Polaris)
Change?- Some change due to economic and technological failure rather than political beliefs
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ArcticSlayer
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(Original post by Lambylittle)
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I'm already using this one
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rachelthehuman
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(Original post by ArcticSlayer)
Do you have any revision materials or essays that you are using to prepare for this exam? There isn't much online for this specific exam...
Other than the one just posted I have nothing apart from an old text book from my teacher. I'm largely just relying on a common sense approach and forming a strong argument and hoping that makes up for less knowledge
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Lambylittle
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The textbook I have is practically useless!
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Lambylittle
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How did you guys find it?
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ArcticSlayer
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(Original post by Lambylittle)
How did you guys find it?
50/50, I liked the great power question but I hate how the Labour and Conservative question was on Europe and not an overall comparison question
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stratagems
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(Original post by Lambylittle)
Since 2010:

EUROPE- 7/9 exams
NUCLEAR- 4/9 exams
THATCHER- 7/9 exams
WORLD POWER- 3/9 exams
DECOLONISATION- 2/4 exams (specifically. have been links with Europe questions before)
LABOUR/CONSERVATIVE TO 1963- 4/9 exams

Judging by this I would predict that decolonisation and world power are likely, and I also think there will be a labour/conservative question as there hasn't been one for a long time.

This was 100% accurate! World power, decolonisation and Conservative/Labour were the question topics. Predictions for US Civil Rights, please, haha.

I didn't like how they framed the decolonisation question on the 'winds of change' speech, because if following the mark schemes for those 'how far do you agree' or whatever question tag it was meant we had to spend a good paragraph on the speech alone. All I know about the speech is that it changed Tory attitudes and said any African country that wants independence can have it - a paragraph it is not!

All of the questions were quite different to others in past exams (on the same topics).
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stratagems
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(Original post by rachelthehuman)
I am resitting this one tomorrow. My teacher and I think something about the differences between Labour and Conservatives might some up and it hasn't been done for a long time. Also as decolonisation didn't come up last year that might be a possibility, but really I have no idea what to expect. Hopefully it will be something relatively easy so that the exam board can boast about how much more challenging their new A-levels are in comparison
So accurate! Does you teacher have predictions for Civil Rights in the USA?
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rachelthehuman
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(Original post by stratagems)
So accurate! Does you teacher have predictions for Civil Rights in the USA?
Ahaha unfortunately not! I am really quite dreading the exam in all honesty, no idea what to expect
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Lambylittle
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(Original post by stratagems)
This was 100% accurate! World power, decolonisation and Conservative/Labour were the question topics. Predictions for US Civil Rights, please, haha.

I didn't like how they framed the decolonisation question on the 'winds of change' speech, because if following the mark schemes for those 'how far do you agree' or whatever question tag it was meant we had to spend a good paragraph on the speech alone. All I know about the speech is that it changed Tory attitudes and said any African country that wants independence can have it - a paragraph it is not!

All of the questions were quite different to others in past exams (on the same topics).
I know! I couldn't believe I got it all right! Though I definitely agree about the decolonisation question which is why I didn't do it! Horrible focus
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