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    What are the stages of transcription and translation?
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    (Original post by Dom2375)
    What are the stages of transcription and translation?
    Transcription:
    1- Helicase binds to DNA at the gene to be unwounded & copied
    - DNA unzips, hydrogen bonds between polynucleotides are broken
    3- Only 1 of the DNA strands is used as a template (unlike DNA replication where two strands are used!)
    4- Free RNA nucleotides align themselves opposite the complimentary DNA base
    5- Guanine nucleotides join to exposed cytosine, but uracil nucleotides join to DNA's adenine
    6- RNA polymerase moves along the strand joining nucleotides forming a single stranded mRNA
    7- The mRNA now carries complementary codons, which will code for specific amino acids
    8- At the end of the gene sequence mRNA is detached and DNA rewinds
    9- mRNA leaves the nucleus through the nuclear pores to the cytoplasm where it attaches to ribosomes consisting of rRNA and proteins

    Translation:
    1- mRNA attaches to the ribosome so that two codons can be read at a time
    - Amino acids are activated by ATP in the cytoplasm to attach to a tRNA molecule with a specific anticodon
    3- tRNA carries its amino acid to the mRNA at the ribosome
    4- tRNA anticodon complimentary base pairs with appropriate mRNA codon
    5- Another tRNA brings its amino acid to the adjacent mRNA codon at the ribosome site
    6- Ribosomal enzymes catalyse the formation of a peptide bond between the two amino acids
    7- Ribosome moves along one codon at a time and the process repeats forming a polypeptide chain. It continues until a stop codon is reached.

    Hope this helps
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    (Original post by RedRosesBloom)
    Transcription:
    1- Helicase binds to DNA at the gene to be unwounded & copied
    - DNA unzips, hydrogen bonds between polynucleotides are broken
    3- Only 1 of the DNA strands is used as a template (unlike DNA replication where two strands are used!)
    4- Free RNA nucleotides align themselves opposite the complimentary DNA base
    5- Guanine nucleotides join to exposed cytosine, but uracil nucleotides join to DNA's adenine
    6- RNA polymerase moves along the strand joining nucleotides forming a single stranded mRNA
    7- The mRNA now carries complementary codons, which will code for specific amino acids
    8- At the end of the gene sequence mRNA is detached and DNA rewinds
    9- mRNA leaves the nucleus through the nuclear pores to the cytoplasm where it attaches to ribosomes consisting of rRNA and proteins

    Translation:
    1- mRNA attaches to the ribosome so that two codons can be read at a time
    - Amino acids are activated by ATP in the cytoplasm to attach to a tRNA molecule with a specific anticodon
    3- tRNA carries its amino acid to the mRNA at the ribosome
    4- tRNA anticodon complimentary base pairs with appropriate mRNA codon
    5- Another tRNA brings its amino acid to the adjacent mRNA codon at the ribosome site
    6- Ribosomal enzymes catalyse the formation of a peptide bond between the two amino acids
    7- Ribosome moves along one codon at a time and the process repeats forming a polypeptide chain. It continues until a stop codon is reached.

    Hope this helps
    Just one thing you forgot to mention, transcription results in the production of pre-mRNA
    It has to be spliced, to remove introns (non coding sections of DNA), before it can leave the nucleus
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    (Original post by HasanRaza1)
    Just one thing you forgot to mention, transcription results in the production of pre-mRNA
    It has to be spliced, to remove introns (non coding sections of DNA), before it can leave the nucleus
    Yes, oops :P
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    (Original post by RedRosesBloom)
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    I just come to this thread to give an answer, but after reading your post, I recognised, it has been settled. Well done! I would hardly have given a better explanation.

    (Original post by HasanRaza1)
    Just one thing you forgot to mention, transcription results in the production of pre-mRNA
    It has to be spliced, to remove introns (non coding sections of DNA), before it can leave the nucleus
    If you are talking about introns, you have not forget to mention the exons, as they are the part of DNA sequence which remains. Lets go the whole hog!

    You are right nevertheless!
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    (Original post by Kallisto)
    I just come to this thread to give an answer, but after reading your post, I recognised, it has been settled. Well done! I would hardly have given a better explanation.



    If you are talking about introns, you have not forget to mention the exons, as they are the part of DNA sequence which remains. Lets go the whole hog!

    You are right nevertheless!
    Hahah fair enough :P
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    (Original post by Kallisto)
    I just come to this thread to give an answer, but after reading your post, I recognised, it has been settled. Well done! I would hardly have given a better explanation.



    If you are talking about introns, you have not forget to mention the exons, as they are the part of DNA sequence which remains. Lets go the whole hog!

    You are right nevertheless!
    Haha, "whole hog". I love it!
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    (Original post by CrazyFool229)
    Haha, "whole hog". I love it!

    Spoiler:
    Show
    Close enough. :burnout:
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    I'm sure David Cameron would like that hog :smug:

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    (Original post by CrazyFool229)
    Haha, "whole hog". I love it!
    Was something wrong with the idiomatic phrase? I am a German, speaking English as a foreign language. Please let me know, if there was something wrong. I improve myself to improve everyone on TSR. .
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    No there wasn't anything wrong with that term! I just loved the enthusiasm

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    (Original post by RedRosesBloom)
    Transcription:
    1- Helicase binds to DNA at the gene to be unwounded & copied
    - DNA unzips, hydrogen bonds between polynucleotides are broken
    3- Only 1 of the DNA strands is used as a template (unlike DNA replication where two strands are used!)
    4- Free RNA nucleotides align themselves opposite the complimentary DNA base
    5- Guanine nucleotides join to exposed cytosine, but uracil nucleotides join to DNA's adenine
    6- RNA polymerase moves along the strand joining nucleotides forming a single stranded mRNA
    7- The mRNA now carries complementary codons, which will code for specific amino acids
    8- At the end of the gene sequence mRNA is detached and DNA rewinds
    9- mRNA leaves the nucleus through the nuclear pores to the cytoplasm where it attaches to ribosomes consisting of rRNA and proteins

    Translation:
    1- mRNA attaches to the ribosome so that two codons can be read at a time
    - Amino acids are activated by ATP in the cytoplasm to attach to a tRNA molecule with a specific anticodon
    3- tRNA carries its amino acid to the mRNA at the ribosome
    4- tRNA anticodon complimentary base pairs with appropriate mRNA codon
    5- Another tRNA brings its amino acid to the adjacent mRNA codon at the ribosome site
    6- Ribosomal enzymes catalyse the formation of a peptide bond between the two amino acids
    7- Ribosome moves along one codon at a time and the process repeats forming a polypeptide chain. It continues until a stop codon is reached.

    Hope this helps
    Great detail! OP, do you know about transcriptional factors and siRNA?


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    (Original post by Julieplec)
    Great detail! OP, do you know about transcriptional factors and siRNA?


    Posted from TSR Mobile
    Thanks and no, I haven't been taught that for my specification.
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    (Original post by RedRosesBloom)
    Transcription:
    1- Helicase binds to DNA at the gene to be unwounded & copied
    - DNA unzips, hydrogen bonds between polynucleotides are broken
    3- Only 1 of the DNA strands is used as a template (unlike DNA replication where two strands are used!)
    4- Free RNA nucleotides align themselves opposite the complimentary DNA base
    5- Guanine nucleotides join to exposed cytosine, but uracil nucleotides join to DNA's adenine
    6- RNA polymerase moves along the strand joining nucleotides forming a single stranded mRNA
    7- The mRNA now carries complementary codons, which will code for specific amino acids
    8- At the end of the gene sequence mRNA is detached and DNA rewinds
    9- mRNA leaves the nucleus through the nuclear pores to the cytoplasm where it attaches to ribosomes consisting of rRNA and proteins

    Translation:
    1- mRNA attaches to the ribosome so that two codons can be read at a time
    - Amino acids are activated by ATP in the cytoplasm to attach to a tRNA molecule with a specific anticodon
    3- tRNA carries its amino acid to the mRNA at the ribosome
    4- tRNA anticodon complimentary base pairs with appropriate mRNA codon
    5- Another tRNA brings its amino acid to the adjacent mRNA codon at the ribosome site
    6- Ribosomal enzymes catalyse the formation of a peptide bond between the two amino acids
    7- Ribosome moves along one codon at a time and the process repeats forming a polypeptide chain. It continues until a stop codon is reached.

    Hope this helps
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