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    Each proton environment shows a splitting pattern relative to its adjacent carbons, but which adjacent carbon? is there a rule? I am asking for when you are given a molecule, not when you are shown an entire spectrum.
    thanks
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    (Original post by jameshegarty)
    Each proton environment shows a splitting pattern relative to its adjacent carbons, but which adjacent carbon? is there a rule? I am asking for when you are given a molecule, not when you are shown an entire spectrum.
    thanks
    The rule is that each proton environment is split by hydrogen atoms on neighbouring carbons.

    The number of peaks seen in n+1 where 'n' is the number of hydrogen atoms on the next door carbon.

    If you have neighbouring hydrogen atoms on adjacent carbon atoms on more than one side then as the environments are probably different each will split the protons differently. So you would get (m+1) of the (n+1) peaks. This is usually just called a multiplet.

    Note, protons attached to oxygen and nitrogen are not usually split becase their signals are broadened by hydrogen bonding.
 
 
 
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