i dont have any theoretical stuff and feel doomed if this comes up. could sum1 outline how theyd answer a question on this topic please?
But for theorists like Marxist you'd talk about how ethnic minorities are w/c. and then go along that route of Capitalism etc.
Left Realists think that ethnic minorities turn to crime coz they are marginalised and suffer social deprivation.
Taylor (Neo-Marxist) also takes the same view.
Hall (Neo-Marxist) talks about the mugging moral panic, and how the black male was labelled as trouble.
Gilroy says how the crimes black people do commit are of a political and revolutional nature.
He also speaks about how the media exagerate how much crime they commit, and it is an illusion.
Umm then about the canteen culture, how the police are racist. they develop a culture to deal with the pressures of work.
Reiner says there are 4 characteristics that they have: isolation from public, cynicism, suspicion and macho values.
U can then talk about the McPherson report/racism in the Steven Laurence case. A black suspect at the scene was considered a suspect not a victim.
I don't have a lot on actual theorists, i just have a lot of stats too.
So i dunno if what i said is any help or not
And example question could be something like 'assess the view that ethnic crime is more the result of the activities of social control agencies than anything in the background of the offender.'
If i was to answer this, i would structure it as-
Yes it has everything to do with the activity of the agencies of social control
I would take about-
.Individual reasons of the police- i.e. their individual beliefs affecting how they go about their work- if they are racist.
.Cultural reasons of the police- 'Canteen culture' and how long hours in each other's company makes them take on board each others opinions. Also about how it makes them develop a more masculine nature focused around racist behaviour- this is reflected in the wya they go about their work.
-Structural aspects of society- breifly explain the marxist view about howpolice work in favour of the ruling class and so likely to stop and search people who may threaten the capitalist system- i.e. ethnics. Gilroy states this.
-The effect of terroism/moral panics on making a negative stereotype for African Carribbeans when they used to be highly respected. Link to the media here; ethnic minorities as folk devils.
-The failure of the police force to bring murderers of Stephen Lawrence to justice show aspects of institutionalized racism and lowered priorities of crimes against ethnic minorities.
-Statistics are socially constructed and show overrepresentation of african carribbeans.
On the other hand..ethnic crime does have some dependancies on their background...
-Most ethnic crimes are reported by the public, and so the idea of the police being racist is wrong (Lea & Young, left realist)
- Millar- 'focal concerns's of people of lower social status, their values are what drives them to crime.
-Experiences in education- Subcultural theory & Cohen- How poor children enter school, suffer from relative deprivation and status frustration and so upturn the schools values and form subcultures.
-Lea and Young suggest that Ethnic crime is a result of relative deprivation, formation of subcultures and marginalization. Examples of this can be Nightingale's study of Blacks in Philidephia and Borgouis' study of drug dealers in el barrio.
-Nightingale also notes how black boys absorb mainsteam culture from media and are then rejected from it in everyday life, so form subcultures.
Constantly link back to the question, it is vital, especially when using the against argument because some things you have to sort of manipulate to make them fit. But it's all synoptic, so you can bring in anything you can think of.
Subculture i guess you could link it too.
How those who are deprived with less opportunities (like ethnic minorities) might join a subculture and go about achieving it that way.
You can always link it to social class.
It depends what the question is to what else u could link it too i think.
Maybe get a bit of gender and crime in there?
the theories u can tsalk about are :
new left realist
u cud also metion starin thoery , cultural transmission , subculture, status frustration..theres loads! but when your talking about these you have to link them with synopticity, for examp.... new right - is about family and black criminality , and ermm status frustration ( lack of education ...turn to crime , and theres reasearch tht says black do less well at school.
and also say about police racism , statistics etc
not very detailed but hope tht helps a little!
"AQA Crime and Deviance topic (revision notes/tips, etc)" thread.
If I were to choose the essay paper, it would be an 8 mark synoptic q, a 12 mark method question and a 40 mark theory question.
Media - Hall-mugging, moral panics, folk devils, scapegoats, self fulfilling prophecy (also links to education)
Family/func - breakdown of nuclear, parson's,hirchi- bonds, lack of if marginalised, farrington and west
marx- ecological views
Poverty/func - individualistic views, marsland, lewis, murray, informal economy
marx - liebow - tallys corner, caplowitz, coates and silburn, cycle of dep, poverty trap, reserve army of labour, black magic roundabout....
is that ok?