How do i answer this question????!!!!!????

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AshBash23
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Item A
There are clear social class differences in educational achievement. Some sociologists argue that these are a result of factors outside school. Some claim that working class parents place less value on education and so their children see it as less important than do middle class pupils. Difference between speech codes an in the level o the family's material resources may also have an important impact.


Question

Apply material from item A and your knowledge, evaluate the view that middle class pupils' higher level of achievement are the product of factors outside of schools.

Can someone please help me answer this question!!!!!!!:confused:
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consensus
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(Original post by AshBash23)
Item A
There are clear social class differences in educational achievement. Some sociologists argue that these are a result of factors outside school. Some claim that working class parents place less value on education and so their children see it as less important than do middle class pupils. Difference between speech codes an in the level o the family's material resources may also have an important impact.


Question

Apply material from item A and your knowledge, evaluate the view that middle class pupils' higher level of achievement are the product of factors outside of schools.

Can someone please help me answer this question!!!!!!!:confused:
OK, this is taken as true - generally different class groupings do have different results from education. You could discuss IQ testing,sub-cultures, primary socialisation of parental values and language (look up Bernstein and Feinstein), cultural and social capital and cultural reproduction.
The question is really asking you to account for if everyone gets the same education why do some groups always do better? A lot is down to parents and other family/friends influence.
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AKinkAdmirer
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Since it is asking for an evaluation of factors outside school you would discuss these for the larger part of your essay but also consider factors within schools for the sake of being balanced in your evaluation. Ultimately the question is asking how significant outside school factors are in infulencing the class difference in attainment. So you need to arrive at a conclusion as to whether outside school factors or inside school factors are more important, or if it is a combination of several.

Also, it is recommended to reference the item at least three times. You don't necessarily have to quote it but try to bring in phrases such as "As the item suggests" and "As explained in the item". For example in a paragraph discussing material deprivation/capital you could say "As Item A explains, the availability of material resources such as textbooks may influence pupil's attainment levels. Then carry on to explain in your own words.

I desperately need to revise so I can't remember any studies you could reference unfortunately. Also I may have got some details wrong so please do your own research as well! I think I'm at least right in outline but I haven't done this in a year.

Some outside school factors:
Cultural capital. A concept developed by Pierre Bordieu. Basically argues middle-class children have more access to higher culture (literature, art etc). The opposite of this is cultural deprivation (Bernstein) which affects mainly working class children and describes exposure to popular culture (e.g. tabloid newspapers, reality tv shows) rather than higher culture.

Related to cultural capital are the restricted and elaborated codes of speech. Middle-class pupils generally have larger vocabularies which means they are better able to understand the language of school books, teachers and exam papers as well as expressing themselves more eloquently. Include this since it's mentioned in the item.

Material capital/deprivation. This is broken down into diet (working-class pupil are more likely to eat unhealthily and miss school due to illness and have poor concentration), housing (damp overcrowded housing can lead to illness and there may not be any space to study in for working-clas pupils), affording (or not!) additional resources such as educational trips, textbooks and even the uniform, and affording higher education after school. While studies look into the effects of material deprivation on the working class, since this question is about middle class pupils it might be necessary to invert things a bit. So, "Middle class pupils can afford x" instead of "Working class pupils cannot afford x". Definitely write about material resources since it is mentioned in the item.

Cultural differences - higher aspirations in middle-class families, higher parental aspirations and involvement, deferred gratification, a willingness to put hard work in for the future's sake. The opposites may apply in general to working-class families. Though an important point of evaluation here is that these theories may rely too much on stereotypes of the different classes?

Then also consider inside school factors - you are evaluating whether these have as much impact as outside school factors. I've listed a few but you don't have to go into quite as much detail as with the outside school factors as the question doesn't name these directly. You might not have time to cover all of these.
Labelling
Streaming
Effects of marketisation
The hidden curriculum benefitting middle-class pupils
Symbolic violence against working-class pupils

As the question asks you to evaluate, every time you make a point you need to test it out. Does it sound plausible and is there any other evidence to agree with it? Or is there any evidence to contradict it? If you have referenced a study, are there any flaws in the research method such as a small sample size? It is essential you do this to fulfil the requirements of the question.

Then in the conclusion you should reach a decision as to whether outside-school factors are indeed the main causes of middle class pupil's higher achievements. Use objective language by saying "One thinks" as opposed to "I think".

I hope some of this helped.
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CollegeGirl_Pain
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(Original post by AKinkAdmirer)
Since it is asking for an evaluation of factors outside school you would discuss these for the larger part of your essay but also consider factors within schools for the sake of being balanced in your evaluation. Ultimately the question is asking how significant outside school factors are in infulencing the class difference in attainment. So you need to arrive at a conclusion as to whether outside school factors or inside school factors are more important, or if it is a combination of several.

Also, it is recommended to reference the item at least three times. You don't necessarily have to quote it but try to bring in phrases such as "As the item suggests" and "As explained in the item". For example in a paragraph discussing material deprivation/capital you could say "As Item A explains, the availability of material resources such as textbooks may influence pupil's attainment levels. Then carry on to explain in your own words.

I desperately need to revise so I can't remember any studies you could reference unfortunately. Also I may have got some details wrong so please do your own research as well! I think I'm at least right in outline but I haven't done this in a year.

Some outside school factors:
Cultural capital. A concept developed by Pierre Bordieu. Basically argues middle-class children have more access to higher culture (literature, art etc). The opposite of this is cultural deprivation (Bernstein) which affects mainly working class children and describes exposure to popular culture (e.g. tabloid newspapers, reality tv shows) rather than higher culture.

Related to cultural capital are the restricted and elaborated codes of speech. Middle-class pupils generally have larger vocabularies which means they are better able to understand the language of school books, teachers and exam papers as well as expressing themselves more eloquently. Include this since it's mentioned in the item.

Material capital/deprivation. This is broken down into diet (working-class pupil are more likely to eat unhealthily and miss school due to illness and have poor concentration), housing (damp overcrowded housing can lead to illness and there may not be any space to study in for working-clas pupils), affording (or not!) additional resources such as educational trips, textbooks and even the uniform, and affording higher education after school. While studies look into the effects of material deprivation on the working class, since this question is about middle class pupils it might be necessary to invert things a bit. So, "Middle class pupils can afford x" instead of "Working class pupils cannot afford x". Definitely write about material resources since it is mentioned in the item.

Cultural differences - higher aspirations in middle-class families, higher parental aspirations and involvement, deferred gratification, a willingness to put hard work in for the future's sake. The opposites may apply in general to working-class families. Though an important point of evaluation here is that these theories may rely too much on stereotypes of the different classes?

Then also consider inside school factors - you are evaluating whether these have as much impact as outside school factors. I've listed a few but you don't have to go into quite as much detail as with the outside school factors as the question doesn't name these directly. You might not have time to cover all of these.
Labelling
Streaming
Effects of marketisation
The hidden curriculum benefitting middle-class pupils
Symbolic violence against working-class pupils

As the question asks you to evaluate, every time you make a point you need to test it out. Does it sound plausible and is there any other evidence to agree with it? Or is there any evidence to contradict it? If you have referenced a study, are there any flaws in the research method such as a small sample size? It is essential you do this to fulfil the requirements of the question.

Then in the conclusion you should reach a decision as to whether outside-school factors are indeed the main causes of middle class pupil's higher achievements. Use objective language by saying "One thinks" as opposed to "I think".

I hope some of this helped.
this has been helping me!thanks
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Chloe2019
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You need to talk about material and cultural factors Material being housing, diet and health and the cost of educationFor cultural use speech codes, parents attitudes, class subculture and cultural capital. Use a chain of resining to explain I’m detail each factor Use evidence such as Douglas, Sugarman (fatalism, collectivism, immediate gratification and present time orientation)
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astrid07
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Item A argues that external factors contribute to the class differences in educational attainment where middle class pupils have higher levels of achievement than working class pupils. External factors are things outside the education system that contributes to an individual or group. This includes cultural or material factors. However, as stated in Item A, other sociologists believe it is internal factors within a school.

Middle class students have more material wealth whereas working class children are material deprived. It has been shown that children on free school meals gain fewer GCSE A*-C than other pupils with 33% against 61%. Material factors include housing, diet and health and cost of education. Working class homes are more likely to suffer overcrowding which can have a direct effect on attainment. For example, it may mean that the child will have no place to study and have disturbed sleeping patterns which could lead to difficulties in concentration with schoolwork. Moreover, Howard (2001) argues young people from poorer homes have lower intake or energy, victims etc. which can lead to poor health and a weaker immune system. This could result to more days absent from school whereas middle class students are tended to have higher attendance rates. Another material factor could be finance and the cost of education. Middle class students are able to gain experiences that could improve their education and are equipped for the education system e.g. transport, uniform, books etc. Bull calls this the ‘cost of free schooling’ which many working class families struggle to afford. This lack of money may also mean children from low incomes may need to work which may have negative impact on schoolwork. This could also lead to a fear of debt from student loads and explains why working class pupils leave school early and why fewer go on to universities. This is supported by research which shows that dropout rates at Sutherland university (predominately working-class area) are higher at 13% than Oxford who are at 1.4%.


According to cultural deprivation theorists, working class families fail to socialise their children adequately leading to working class children to grow up ‘culturally deprived’. This is where they lack the cultural equipment to do well at school and so they underachieve. One main aspect is language. It has been found that middle class parents use language that challenge their children’s own understanding or ability and therefore cognitive performance improves. They also use praise which helps the chid to develop a sense of competence therefore giving them the confidence to do well. This language is called the elaborated speech code. Whereas, Bereiter and Engelman, language in lower class homes in defiant where there are single words. This language is called the restricted speech code. As a result of this, it gives middle-class children an advantage. Elaborated code is used through education and is seen as an essential skill. This means that middle class children have an easier process of socialisation into the education system as they are already fluent while working class children feel excluded and therefore leads to them being less successful. Another aspect of material deprivation is parent’s attitude to education. Feinstein 1998 found that working-class parent’s lack of interest was the main reason for their children’s underachievement and was even more important than financial hardships or factors within school. He also argues that middle-class children are more successful because their parents provide them with necessary motivation, discipline and support. Cultural deprivation theorists argue a lack of parental interest among w/c reflects their subcultural values. They suggest these values are different from mainstream culture (a class subculture). According to this theory, this is why their children fail at school because ‘working class parents place less value on education (…)’.

Bourdieu argues both cultural and material factors contribute to educational attainment and are not separate but interrelated. Capital usually refers to wealth but Bourdieu identifies two further types: ‘education capital’ or ‘cultural capital. Cultural capital refers to knowledge, attitudes, values, language, tastes and ability of the middle class. Bourdieu argues m/c children acquire the ability to express, understand and analyse ideas. They are more likely to develop intellectual interests and understands what the education system requires of them for success. While the education system transmits a dominant middle class culture, the school devalues working class culture as ‘rough’ and inferior. This lack of cultural capital leads to exam failure and many of them ‘get the message’ that education is not for them so they respond with truanting, leaving or not trying. This is supported by the Alice Sullivan’s study who found the pupil’s with the greatest cultural capital were children of graduates and most likely to achieve at GCSE. Furthermore, Bourdieu argues that wealthier parents can convert economic capital into education capital e.g. private schools and extra tuition. Leech and Campo also supported this by finding middle class parents are more likely to be able to afford a house in the catchment area of highly achieving schools. This is known as ‘selection by mortgage’ because it drives up costs of houses near to successful schools and excludes working-class children. Despite evidence, Keddie argues cultural deprivation is a myth and simply blames the victim. She says working class children are culturally different (supporting cultural subgroups) but not deprived. According to Keddie, working class children fail because education is dominated by middle class values which places them at a disadvantage. Keddie suggests schools should challenge teachers and anti-working class prejudice, linking to the idea of internal factors.

Internal factors are things within a school that are thought to have an influence on a child’s education. This can include labelling, streaming, pupil subcultures etc. One example of an internal factor is the labelling theory. This is where teachers attach labels to pupils based on their class backgrounds despite the pupil’s actual ability or attitude. Becker carried out an internationalist study based on 60 Chicago high school teachers and found they judged pupils according to how closely they tilted the image of an ‘ideal pupil.’ The ideal pupil was often middle class students whereas the working class students were seen as negatively. This lead to students to building up a self-fulfilling prophecy where after the teacher treats them differently according to their label, the pupil realises teachers’ expectation and acts the way the teacher predicts them to do.

Overall, I take an internationalist approach to why middle-class students achieve more in the education system. On one hand, I believe material wealth plays a part in giving middle-class students an advantage in starting education but I also think teachers play a big part in reinforcing the idea that ‘education is for the middle class and not, the working class.
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