Edexcel History: American Dream & South Africa 1948-94 9HI0 - 09 & 16 JunWatch
Wondering how you guys find the course and how you revise
Hi guys I'm currently doing A2 history and wanted to create a thread for America and South Africa course because there isn't one hopefully it's helpful!
Wondering how you guys find the course and how you revise
i was going to ask the same thing how can we revise all this content along with coursework and The British Depth Study without any revision guides!!!
I found some notes on South Africa on this website, but I am really struggling to remember bits and pieces of legislation. I tried flash cards, and testing myself on them, but it's not as efficient as I need it to be. I have a mock exam in less than two weeks and it's becoming a bit chaotic now haha
but good luck on ur mocks!
if you private message me your email i can send you more topics
Topic 2.1- sa
WHY THE NATIONAL PARTY WON + CODIFYING APARTHEID 1948 – 59
Malan Leader of NP
Smuts Leader of UP
How it helped NP (under Malan) win
Society of Afrikaner white men called Broederbond favoured nationalist outlook.
Started an Economic Movement to promote Afrikaner business
Afrikaner nationalists promoted fear of swart gevaar (black danger)
Were encouraging everyday racism and were promoting the idea of flooding of African people into cities a being bad as Afrikaners/whites would have to compete for jobs.
Spread fear of sexual relations between races.
Accused Smuts and UP of being too sympathetic to black people even though they weren’t – spread the idea that UP was failing to control political dangers and so support for NP grew.
Idea of apartheid introduced
Separate development would allow all racial groups to progress
Drafting laws removing blacks from franchise and limiting land they could buy – attracted many people such as farmers
1948 elections NP won just over 400,000 votes whereas UP won 524.000 but it was still Malan with other NP MP’s who formed a government and became the next prime minister.
Law to categorise people as ‘Coloured’ so they couldn’t vote 1951 Separate Representation of Voters Act passed by Nationalists
Judges said Act wasn’t valid without a two-thirds majority.
‘Coloured’ people shared history and culture with whites – descendants of Asia and parts of Africa by Dutch.
They voted largely for the UP rather than NP.
Act removed their voting rights as they made up 9% of population
Government appointed new Afrikaner judges to get their way with sympathetic Afrikaners
Afrikaners won wide support from whites
1953 – NP votes increased from 400,000 to 600,000, narrowly outpolling the UP but still didn’t win majority of white vote
NP gained parliamentary power and seats for next 40 years
By 1950s, had senior positions such as military, police and bureaucracy – state employment increased from 428,000 to 799,000. Most were Afrikaners.
Opposing parties of NP
Disadvantage to NP
Smuts played a major role in formation of United Nations and his own United Party
Played around with liberal policies and shared racial attitudes of Afrikaners
Ready to facilitate need for more black workers
Minister of Health of UP supported an expansion of health services in SA like the NHS to serve both white and black in segregated people
Despite the criticism against NP – NP only won 38% votes in 1948 whereas UP won 49%.
Nhip to cooperate w/government.
Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act (1959) passed by Verwoerd
Promoted an idea of self-governing African units based around traditional authorities
Gave Afrikaners hope that African people would want/welcome separate development
Verwoerd said he was offering internal decolonisation like Europe on Africa.
LAWS TO SEPARATE RACES
1950 Population Registration Act
All SA forced into particular racial group – difficult for mixed marriages
Aimed to prevent ‘coloured’ people being classed as whites
Coloured families had difficult time members of family would be classed differently to each other
1950 Group Areas Act
Government had power to declare
areas as ‘for whites only’ + force black Africans out against their will
Afrikaners didn’t want whites mixing/having relations with blacks
Hard to control population and ‘separate’ races since many lived side by side
1951 Bantus Authorities Act
Government given power to appoint tribal/homeland chiefs to rule them
Reserves covered 13% of total SA land even if black SA made up 70% pop
1952 Abolition of Passes Act
Extended pass system to cover all black in urban areas + eventually women
Without passbook and authorisation in urban area = fined and to homeland
Women protested in 1910 initially so weren’t included but eventually included in 1952 protests but ignored by government
Laws failed to keep Africans out of cities African urban population rose from 1.8 million in 1946 to 3.5 million in 1966 (more than whole of African population)
1953 Reservation of Separate Amenities Act
All races should have separate facilities like toilets, parks, beaches without being same quality so Africans couldn’t even sit in same seat as whites
Africans against the law – protested and ignored ‘whites only’ signs
1956 Separate Representation of Voters Act
Took away Coloureds right to vote with whites in elections
Could only vote for 4 white representatives in House of Assembly
SOCIAL RACE LAWS
Prohibition of Mixed Marriages – 1949
Marriages between people of different races made illegal – prevent inter-racial marriages (difficult to categorize people into specific racial groups)
Immortality Act – 1950
Sexual relations between different races made illegal
In 1953, around 8x more was spent on educating white students (around 64 rands) than black students (around 8 rands).
1953 – Bantu Education Act
Schools brought under state control rather than missionaries controlling them
Many black resistance leaders studied there – now government wanted to control curriculum
Less money spent on black students large classes, less qualified + poorly paid teachers
Black kids not expected to go beyond primary education – taught to be inferior to whites
Not taught English – only skills for low paid jobs in homelands
Boycotts + protests government threatened to blacklist teachers in boycott and permanently deny education to any child not enrolled by April 1953
1959 – Extension of Universities Act
Limited admission into university to only whites
New universities built in homelands for black students
Most black students finished their matric and attended universities like Fort Hare, Cape Town and Witwatersrand and achieved same training as white students – act made sure universities like Fort Hare came under government control and were segregated.
Reasons for change
Verwoerd controlled this law and worked it out - only 24% black SA recorded as literate in 1951 census – indication that school system was bad so Act introduced not only to extend education, but also to separate it.
Many young/school aged children began to join street and urban gangs – fear of the gangs such as tsotsis was a major reason to the education expansion
Also, many youths were starting to join urban gangs – concerning government – parents were absent at work and around 20,000 teens in the cities weren’t at school and couldn’t be employed. Joining gangs helped them earn up to 10 rands a day, which was a lot, and so many decided to join.
Verwoerd – Act would limit roles but give some more opportunities in jobs – being unskilled and illiterate was no longer adequate for the growing sphere of jobs – needed some degree of literacy, numeracy and linguistic skills.
LAWS AGAINST OPPOSITION OF APARTHEID
1950 Suppression of Communism Act
Banned communism + political groups against apartheid laws
Cold War between West + USSR was spreading communism
NP saw it as threat – had power to arrest anyone they wanted
Racial equality was seen as communism
1953 Criminal Law Amendment Act
In response to non-violent campaigns by ANC + SAIC against apartheid laws
Sentenced anyone who broke/defied a law to 3 years imprisonment and anyone encouraging protests/breaking laws to 5 years.
PLACES WHERE GROUP AREAS ACT WAS IMPLEMENTED:
Africans were able to own private land here, it housed around 60,000 people – poorer tenants lived in backyard shacks
ANC – President Xuma lived there too
Since it was close to the city centre, it attracted writers/journalists from Drum Magazine - wrote about urban lifestyle there, African politics, new music, tsotsis, gangsters
Because of it’s reputation, it soon became a target for Nationalists and was eventually removed by 1956 by bulldozing.
Was 3rd largest city housing 450,000 in 1951 – 1/3 Indian, 1/3 African, 1/3 white
Indians owned large amounts private property near city and in Cato Manor – area adjacent to a white suburb
Indians rented land to African tenants who build shacks and houses there
1940s – land filled quickly with shack settlements
1949 – African people attacked Indians they felt were exploiting them as landlords 143 killed, 1000+ injured during riots and police suppression
1950s Group Areas Act = most shacks largely removed by 1956 and all sent to other townships
41,000 Indians moved to central areas and exclusive Indian zones south of city
A multi-racial, largely coloured residential and business area near Cape Town
Group Areas enforced there later on in 1966 – 600,000 people forcibly removed and building bulldozed
Valuable inner city architectural heritage also destroyed just to implement the racial law
Some of this site is still a vacant wasteland
TOMLINSON REPORT AND THE BANTUSTANS
Commission appointed under Professor Tomlinson (agricultural economist at Uni of Stellenboch), which reported in 1955.
Believed economic development of homelands would help advance apartheid
The Tomlinson Commission Bantustans could be transformed into huge state investments of over £100 million:
Said the agricultural plots in Bantustans were too small and migrant labour was undermining agriculture – recommended creating a group/class of full time farmers by increasing plot sizes but meant pushing many families off land to create bigger ‘economic units’ for farming.
Tomlinson supported major funding for the rural industries
Supported the idea of private enterprise encouraged SA and foreign to invest in the rural areas.
Verwoerd rejected his recommendations – didn’t want white SA to support funding on large scale
Didn’t want rural industries in homelands to compete with urban white businesses
Said ‘Bantu’ should develop ‘at their own pace’ and didn’t allow outside investment into it
If landholdings were enlarged, millions of Africans would lose land = little option but to migrate to cities to find work – he’d been trying to prevent this and this would undermine idea of apartheid
Private land ownership = undermine power of chiefs which gave him political support
Native Affairs Department = warned ‘individual tenure would undermine the whole tribal structure’
‘BETTERMENT’ AND ‘REHABILITATION’
Less than recommended amount invested in homelands
Concerns about soil erosion:
Derived from pre-apartheid era = widespread concern - soil erosion between war years
SA – government officials worried about environmental degradation/soil erosion in homeland reserves – undermine agriculture = intensify poverty = Africans to cities
‘Betterment’ programme developed by officials - strategy to stop environmental degradation and let Africans intensify farming without destroying soil/vegetation
Officials – thought livestock was main cause of degradation divide pastures with barbed wire into smaller paddocks
Animals moved from paddock-to-paddock throughout year to avoid over-grazing
Officials moved rural families from scattered settlements to compact villages
Over 1 million forced to move into villages during 50s + 60s
Some forced to sell livestock to ease pressure on pastures
Removals into villages destroyed some traditional ways of living – deeply resented
Livestock culling was unpopular – abandoned by government in 60s
INADEQUACIES OF BANTUSTANTS
Substantial new areas of white-owned land bought to extend homelands – but still small compared to whole SA land
NP didn’t want to divide SA equally – whites didn’t accept the sacrifice
Also – Africans were going to be divided into language groups and origins but whites were whites = no divisions for whites as in Afrikaners, British, Portuguese, Jews
POLITICAL SUPPRESSION + TREASON TRIAL
The Congress of the People in 1955 was the largest gathering held in South Africa. It was held to spread the idea of equality and draw up the Freedom Charter, which promoted the elimination of racial discrimination. It was also where the African National Congress publicly declared themselves. However, the government reacted in 1956 by arresting 156 Congress leaders, which was known as the Treason Trial.
The Treason Trial
The 156 people who had been arrested were accused of communism and treason because of their connection to the Freedom Charter. This was despite the fact that some of them hadn’t even been at the gathering.
By the time the real trial started, only 95 were still facing charges after it had been determined that there was enough evidence to support the trial by the Supreme Court.
Prosecution argued that the goal of the Freedom Charter was to overthrow the government.
Expert on communism admitted that it was just a natural reaction to the harsh conditions.
Eventually, all accused were released after being declared non-guilty.
Advantages of Treason Trial
Disadvantages of Treason Trial
Important members had been away for long periods of time. Even after they were released, they were either on banning orders or were under attack and harassed constantly
The government was adamant on using all of its political powers on oppressing anyone who was against the Treason Trial. Laws became tougher against black South Africans to prevent them from speaking up. Eventually banning orders were introduced. These meant that those who were suspected in being involved with ‘communist’ activity or ‘resistance’ were arrested with banning orders.
More drastic members of the ANC’s Youth League didn’t like and agree with the ANC interacting with any other race than their own, and so they left to form the PAC.
The cause of the Treason Trial started with resistance against apartheid. The government wanted black South Africans to have no rights, and to oppress them. This is why it was so important for them to diminish any movement of resistance against the apartheid plan.
Special legislations were passed, creating a Special Court with 3 judges instead of 1.
Minister of Justice could handpick the judges, giving them the opportunity to be biased and lenient towards those they thought would help them.
The Suppression of Communism Act (1950). This was introduced to ban members of the South African Communist Party. This act meant that anyone could be banned and have their freedom taken away without trial or evidence. The banning orders gave the government power to force people to; live in remote areas without their families and not being allowed to move around the country, always being watched by police, banning them from meeting other members, writing and broad
Nelson Mandela pointed out that the Trial changed the conflict and relationship between the government and anti-apartheid organisations, since no members were “isolated...or tortured in order to elicit information”.
Resistance leaders were in joined cells after being arrested, which gave them the chance to openly meet, which the government had gone so far to prevent.
AFRICAN NATIONALISM 1948 – 59
POLITICAL OPPOSITION IN 1948
1948 – No single black opposition group – lots divided by geographic zones, race, class, interests
ANC – established in 1910
1910 – Union of South Africa established colonies of Cape, Natal, Orange Free State, Transvaal unified into a single entity by British Government – granted right to self rule in British Empire.
ANC + YOUTH LEAGUE
ANC had best-educated members of the African elite
Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu and Oliver Tambo opened an all-black law firm in 1952 and often discussed how to get equality for everyone in South Africa, ex-teacher Anton Lembede also later joined in. However, he was an Africanist, which meant he was against co-operating with other races such as whites and Indians.
Sisulu was a member of the ANC
Lembede criticised the ANC for trying to impress white people
Lembede eventually became president of ANC
Sisulu persuaded his other friends to join though and together, they formed the Youth League.
They didn’t want to work with the Indian National Congress (campaigning for Indians) because they saw Indians as non-Africans with different problems
Didn’t want to work with South African Communist Party either. The communists weren’t Christians that the party was multiracial. Mandela wrote attacks on them and the YL often broke up their meetings.
Some members wanted to ‘drive the white man into the sea’.
ANC Youth League – founded 1944 for a more radical movement – inspired by rise of global anti-colonial rhetoric + confidence of African nationalists in West Africa
Alarmed by white rhetoric about race and racial separation and discrimination
Weren’t so driven or motivated by religious ideas unlike Afrikaner nationalists
They took courage from a new phase of mass political action around Johannesburg
Initially led by lawyer Anton Lembede and included Oliver Tambo, Walter Sisulu and Nelson Mandela
NP victory 1948 – encouraged them to launch a Programme of Action in 1949 – went for a more confrontational approach to the white minority rule:
Boycotts, resistance, work strikes and mass action
This radical approach was attack on the old traditions of ANC as well as white supremacy
Called for African consciousness and nationalism – wanted united African people
Most members had gone to Fort Hare university – together they expelled/overthrew Dr. Xuma – the moderate ANC president, replaced by Albert Luthuli in 1952
Youth League’s Programme of Action adoped by ANC in December 1949 - turned to a more militant liberation organisation.
ANC AND OTHER ORGANISATIONS
1940s – Communist Party accepted it was unlikely to find mass support among black workers for a revolution in SA
Racial oppression too central in people’s mind to persuade them
Communists accepted idea of 2-phase revolution:
Working with African nationalists to achieve a national democratic revolution where everyone could exercise their full political rights regardless of colour
Socialist revolution would be the next step.
NP deeply anti-communist and banned the Communist Party in 1950.
Communists – unusual organisation in SA since it was socially diverse – mix of white and black intellectuals as well as workers
Youth Leaguers like Mandela and Tambo were uneasy about working with them – alliance eventually became stronger.
Whites, Indians, Coloured people not accepted into ANC SAIC (South African Indian Congress) and other Congress organisations created in parallel reflected apartheid and racial divisions
Group of white liberals emerged – highly critical of apartheid – wanted extension of black political rights
Liberal Party formed in 1953 – supported a new language of politics based on respect & equal individual rights rather than racial division
Liberals attracted black support but suspicious of ANC and communists – didn’t work with them
Liberalism was weak – crushed by white fears and attraction of radical African nationalism
Strategy: groups of volunteers to break racial restrictions like curfews and segregated facilities and risk arrest.
Nelson Mandela – volunteer-in-chief with Yusuf Cachalia from Indian Congress
Influenced by ideas of non-violent civil disobedience promoted by Ghandi who lived in SA from 1983 – 1914.
Target cities were Johannesburg and Durban but support was bad and 6000/8000 arrests were made in Eastern Cape cities of Port Elizabeth and East London instead:
CASE STUDY: EAST LONDON
Heart of the campaign with 35,000 people. Africans lived in shacks and there were high levels of poverty and IMR – 37% of babies born there had died in the first year
Local ANC led by Alcott Gwentshe and C.J. Fazzie (militant speaker)
East London close to Fort Hare Youth League militants found route to city
Defiance Campaign began June 1952 with 1500 people:
Audience shouted ANC slogans while Gwentshe spoke about white dominance and independence
ANC activists often wore khaki uniforms and ANC colours and could be easily identified
Protestors rejected the laws and used ‘whites only’ facilities and many were arrested (willingly) so that courts would clog up and force apartheid laws away – most just sentenced to hard labour
More youths started coming to the meetings, advocating violence – a police informer was chased and stoned.
October – campaign was split between moderate Gwentshe and radical Fazzie.
Riots spread and eventually, the Minster of Justice sent armed reinforcement to ban meetings for a month
November 9th – activists advertised ‘religious’ gatherings. Police went and found an 800-people meeting who started throwing stones and sticks at them:
Police couldn’t stop the meeting
They claimed there was a baton attack and that someone had a gun
They opened fire themselves, causing the crowd to disperse and stone the officers and burn down buildings
2 white people were killed but weren’t specifically targeted: an insurance salesman and a Catholic medical missionary whose car was set alight with her inside. There were accusations that her body was taken afterwards and parts were taken. This was a shocking incident. The news of her death spread quickly across SA.
7 African deaths were recorded with 18 injured. However, there were reports of this number being much higher by policemen. This caused ANC to call off the campaign
WOMEN AND ANC
Male leaders of ANC had conservative and patriarchal (male central) views about women’s role
Women were only admitted as members in 1943
Women’s League founded in 1948 instead incorporated women’s organisations in ANC
Government announced 1955 that it’d extend pass aws to women as too many moving from rural to cities
Lillian Ngoyi staged mass protest against passes – petition signatures + 20,000 marched on Union Buildings in Pretoria
1957 – protested outside pass office in Johannesburg
Women also led the resistance to forced removals in Cato Manor, Durban in late 1950s
Countryside resistance happened in urban areas – Bantu authorities and ‘betterment’ helped trigger series of rural movements throughout rural districts in late 50s.
Case Study: Sekhukhuneland
In 1957-58, people tried to prevent government interference in their political and social lives. This is becayse in the 1950s, the Department of Native Affairs had tried to turn Sukhukhuneland into a homeland with tribal authorities running it. Many men living there were migrant workers who spent most of their time in Pretoria and Johannesburg. Some joined the ANC. Many migrants workers had also established organisations to help them with finance, transport and getting money back to their rural homes. Therefore, these men were strongly against the idea of Bantustans because they wouldn’t be able to work in urban areas which was an important source of money for them. They then adapted ANC’s ideas and were also dedicated to the idea of equal rights in SA. They didn’t want the chiefs who supported culling of cattle and didn’t want them as part of the Bantustans.
In 1957, the government was set to impose the Bantu Authorities Act with chiefs. However, in May, 9 of those government officials had been beaten or stabbed to death and others were burnt out of their own homes. Police was then sent in, who arrested hundreds of people in connection and sent them to trial. The only chief who was trying to protect the interest of migrant workers was arrested and deported, which was an obstacle for them since he was the one helping them bring out their own identity.
The Freedom Charter
ANC called a nationwide meeting with people from all the different organisations that they’d been working with (the Charter Congress), such as delegates from the Indian Congress, Coloured People and trade unions. They asked them all what their demands were. They were written in the Freedom Charter; the ANC now had what the People of South Africa really wanted.
The Charter Congress met at Kliptown outside Johannesburg on 26th June 1955. The crowd was surrounded by police and this made it difficult since most of the leaders were banned. Mandela and Walter Sisulu watched in secret. Despite this, almost 3000 delegates made it. The Freedom Charter was read out and everyone agreed. The Freedom Charter was the basis of the ANC’s campaigns up to 1994 since it contained the real demands of everyone.
The PAC – Pan-Africanist Congress
The ANC campaigned for a non-racial South Africa. The PAC was a group of Africanists in Johannesburg. They wanted to hold onto their distinct political identity and promoted the idea of ‘Africa for Africans’. Most of their support came from teachers
They thought that non-Africans had too much influence in the Congress movement. The Freedom Charter was written by a multiracial committee. PAC believed that the Charter and campaigns should’ve been led by Africans only without other races
They weren’t concerned for civil rights for everyone. They believed that independence meant that the land would be given to Africans.
In 1958, ANC leaders were re-elected, with the reason given that they were too busy with the Treason Trial. When Leballo protested at the decision, he was expelled
In an ANC conference, Luthuli compared Africanist to tribes. Africanists walked out.
The Africanists then tried to form a separate organisation within the ANC. In April 1959, they even held a founding convention for the PAC and read support telegrams from Ghana and Guinea. This was reported in white and black press.
ANC members said that the government allowed PAC to freely speak and organise themselves because their idea of split nationalism was like their own idea of ‘separate development’ but didn’t know how hostile PAC were towards Bantustans.
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