flyingpanda786
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Name* the* two* structures* in* the* brain* involved* in* regulating* thyroid*
hormone*production*and*the*hormo nes*they*secrete.

Really confused i thought the thyroid gland released TSH.

Someone please help!!
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AortaStudyMore
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(Original post by flyingpanda786)
Name* the* two* structures* in* the* brain* involved* in* regulating* thyroid*
hormone*production*and*the*hormo nes*they*secrete.

Really confused i thought the thyroid gland released TSH.

Someone please help!!
So hypothalamus releases TRH, which stimulates the anterior pituitary to release TSH, which stimulates the thyroid gland to make thyroxine (Tetraiodothyronine). I saw your other post and saw that someone explained it in a simplified way, but if you want to sound cool and smart, then here are some "interesting" facts:
The connection between the hypothalamus and the anterior part of the pituitary gland is called the hypothalamo-adenohypophysial axis. TRH is released by neurones projecting from the hypothalamus and it stands for Thyrotrophin Releasing Hormone because it stimulates the release of Thyrotrophin (aka Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) from the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland releases TSH which stimulates the production of Tetraiodothyronine (aka Thryoxine or T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3). T3 is the more active form, but T4 is the form that is most commonly found in the blood. It is converted to T3 when it is needed (by an enzyme called deiodinase). T3 then binds to a thyroid hormone receptor where it forms a heterodimer with a retinoid X receptor which binds to the Thryoid Response Element and thus causes a change in gene expression.

A lot of long words there to impress your friends
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flyingpanda786
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(Original post by AortaStudyMore)
So hypothalamus releases TRH, which stimulates the anterior pituitary to release TSH, which stimulates the thyroid gland to make thyroxine (Tetraiodothyronine). I saw your other post and saw that someone explained it in a simplified way, but if you want to sound cool and smart, then here are some "interesting" facts:
The connection between the hypothalamus and the anterior part of the pituitary gland is called the hypothalamo-adenohypophysial axis. TRH is released by neurones projecting from the hypothalamus and it stands for Thyrotrophin Releasing Hormone because it stimulates the release of Thyrotrophin (aka Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) from the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland releases TSH which stimulates the production of Tetraiodothyronine (aka Thryoxine or T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3). T3 is the more active form, but T4 is the form that is most commonly found in the blood. It is converted to T3 when it is needed (by an enzyme called deiodinase). T3 then binds to a thyroid hormone receptor where it forms a heterodimer with a retinoid X receptor which binds to the Thryoid Response Element and thus causes a change in gene expression.

A lot of long words there to impress your friends

Wow!! You really know your stuff! Your explanation was not only brilliant but also really easy to understand which I need haha! Thank you for your time

PS: Cool username
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macpatgh-Sheldon
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Hi looks like AortaStudyMore holds MBBS and MRCP degrees - very impressive (are you a cardiologist??).

Just to add a couple of minor points, which he/she probs missed out due to tired fingers after typing all that detail (which taught me one or two things, too!).

TRF (Thyrotropin Releasing Factor) (or TRH) has a positive feedback relationship with TSH in that the greater the amount of TRF released rom the hypothalamus, the more TSH is released from the posterior pituitary. There is also a negative feedback mechanism evolved to control plasma T4 (thyroxine - has 4 iodine atoms) and T3 (tri-iodothyronine - has 3 iodine atoms) levels within a precise range. So, if thyroxine levels (T3 has less importance because a) there is less of it b) it is weaker) go down as in hypothyroidism (also called myxoedema - underactive thyroid gland - {leads to slowing down of all bodily functions leading to bradycardia [slow heart rate], slow breathing, constipation [due to slow movement of food/boluses down gut], lack of energy, feeling cold, etc.}), that is, if thyroxine levels are low, more TSH is released from the pituitary via an increase in TRF, which leads to increased secretion of T4 from the thyroid gland, tending to correct the low T4 levels we started with. AND VICE VERSA if T4 levels are high.

Therefore, one way of diagnosing hypo [-low] or hyper [=high]-thyroidism is to measure plasma TSH levels. If these are high, the patient may have hypothyroidism; if low they may have hyperthyroidism - all measurements/results of tests SHOULD BE INTERPRETED IN CONJUNCTION WITH OTHER FINDINGS, e,g, history and examination details, NOT IN ISOLATION, and in this case T4 levels.

I go into this level of pathological detail as at A level biology, they often tell you about some new disease, and ask you to work out answers from the basic info given in the Q and your own knowledge - if you already have the knowledge you are laughing beforehand!!

Mukesh (Specialist A Level Biology tutor and ex-medic)
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AortaStudyMore
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(Original post by macpatelgh)
Hi looks like AortaStudyMore holds MBBS and MRCP degrees - very impressive (are you a cardiologist??).

Just to add a couple of minor points, which he/she probs missed out due to tired fingers after typing all that detail (which taught me one or two things, too!).

TRF (Thyrotropin Releasing Factor) (or TRH) has a positive feedback relationship with TSH in that the greater the amount of TRF released rom the hypothalamus, the more TSH is released from the posterior pituitary. There is also a negative feedback mechanism evolved to control plasma T4 (thyroxine - has 4 iodine atoms) and T3 (tri-iodothyronine - has 3 iodine atoms) levels within a precise range. So, if thyroxine levels (T3 has less importance because a) there is less of it b) it is weaker) go down as in hypothyroidism (also called myxoedema - underactive thyroid gland - {leads to slowing down of all bodily functions leading to bradycardia [slow heart rate], slow breathing, constipation [due to slow movement of food/boluses down gut], lack of energy, feeling cold, etc.}), that is, if thyroxine levels are low, more TSH is released from the pituitary via an increase in TRF, which leads to increased secretion of T4 from the thyroid gland, tending to correct the low T4 levels we started with. AND VICE VERSA if T4 levels are high.

Therefore, one way of diagnosing hypo [-low] or hyper [=high]-thyroidism is to measure plasma TSH levels. If these are high, the patient may have hypothyroidism; if low they may have hyperthyroidism - all measurements/results of tests SHOULD BE INTERPRETED IN CONJUNCTION WITH OTHER FINDINGS, e,g, history and examination details, NOT IN ISOLATION, and in this case T4 levels.

I go into this level of pathological detail as at A level biology, they often tell you about some new disease, and ask you to work out answers from the basic info given in the Q and your own knowledge - if you already have the knowledge you are laughing beforehand!!

Mukesh (Specialist A Level Biology tutor and ex-medic)
Sadly I don't have those degrees yet I'm only a second year medical student haha, but it's good to know that you think I could have those degrees and yh I didn't think I needed to go too much into thyroid disease.. that's a whole new kettle of fish haha
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AortaStudyMore
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(Original post by flyingpanda786)
Wow!! You really know your stuff! Your explanation was not only brilliant but also really easy to understand which I need haha! Thank you for your time

PS: Cool username
You're welcome buddy
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flyingpanda786
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(Original post by macpatelgh)
Hi looks like AortaStudyMore holds MBBS and MRCP degrees - very impressive (are you a cardiologist??).

Just to add a couple of minor points, which he/she probs missed out due to tired fingers after typing all that detail (which taught me one or two things, too!).

TRF (Thyrotropin Releasing Factor) (or TRH) has a positive feedback relationship with TSH in that the greater the amount of TRF released rom the hypothalamus, the more TSH is released from the posterior pituitary. There is also a negative feedback mechanism evolved to control plasma T4 (thyroxine - has 4 iodine atoms) and T3 (tri-iodothyronine - has 3 iodine atoms) levels within a precise range. So, if thyroxine levels (T3 has less importance because a) there is less of it b) it is weaker) go down as in hypothyroidism (also called myxoedema - underactive thyroid gland - {leads to slowing down of all bodily functions leading to bradycardia [slow heart rate], slow breathing, constipation [due to slow movement of food/boluses down gut], lack of energy, feeling cold, etc.}), that is, if thyroxine levels are low, more TSH is released from the pituitary via an increase in TRF, which leads to increased secretion of T4 from the thyroid gland, tending to correct the low T4 levels we started with. AND VICE VERSA if T4 levels are high.

Therefore, one way of diagnosing hypo [-low] or hyper [=high]-thyroidism is to measure plasma TSH levels. If these are high, the patient may have hypothyroidism; if low they may have hyperthyroidism - all measurements/results of tests SHOULD BE INTERPRETED IN CONJUNCTION WITH OTHER FINDINGS, e,g, history and examination details, NOT IN ISOLATION, and in this case T4 levels.

I go into this level of pathological detail as at A level biology, they often tell you about some new disease, and ask you to work out answers from the basic info given in the Q and your own knowledge - if you already have the knowledge you are laughing beforehand!!

Mukesh (Specialist A Level Biology tutor and ex-medic)

I honestly wish i was that smart haha. Your explanation was really in depth and i actually understood it (an accomplishment for me ). Thank you for time and very good explanation, appreciate it!
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macpatgh-Sheldon
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No probs, flyingpanda!
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