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    1) Why must vaccination to aquire herd immunity be carried out at once?
    2) How are B-cells second immune response; can they not detect pathogens before T-cells?
    3) As far as I know B and T cells both form immunological memory cells; are both the same or do they form different types of memory cells?
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    (Original post by BackLumbarJack)
    1) Why must vaccination to aquire herd immunity be carried out at once?
    2) How are B-cells second immune response; can they not detect pathogens before T-cells?
    3) As far as I know B and T cells both form immunological memory cells; are both the same or do they form different types of memory cells?
    1) Not sure what your exam board will accept

    2) Your question doesn't make sense. Are you on about how B-cells carry out an immune response? Yes they can detect pathogens. Both cells carry out separate responses. Every cells in your body has a receptor on it's surface in which lymphocytes and white blood cells identifies whether it's a pathogen or not (by binding to the receptors). B-cells purpose is to form antibodies and memory cells. They do this by:
    A) binding to the pathogens (preventing them from binding to other cells and infecting them e.g. viruses);
    B) binding prevents anymore toxins from releasing
    C) helper T-cells then bind to the B-cells, activating it (there are others which can also activate it, but you don't need to know it for A-level);
    D) B-cells then undergoes clonal expansions occurs;
    E) these clones then differentiate into pathogens or memory cells.

    3) These cells are all the same except contains different genetic material, for which when activated will differentiate into their respective cells (either T-cells or B-cells).
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    (Original post by kkboyk)
    1) Not sure what your exam board will accept

    2) Your question doesn't make sense. Are you on about how B-cells carry out an immune response? Yes they can detect pathogens. Both cells carry out separate responses. Every cells in your body has a receptor on it's surface in which lymphocytes and white blood cells identifies whether it's a pathogen or not (by binding to the receptors). B-cells purpose is to form antibodies and memory cells. They do this by:
    A) binding to the pathogens (preventing them from binding to other cells and infecting them e.g. viruses);
    B) binding prevents anymore toxins from releasing
    C) helper T-cells then bind to the B-cells, activating it (there are others which can also activate it, but you don't need to know it for A-level);
    D) B-cells then undergoes clonal expansions occurs;
    E) these clones then differentiate into pathogens or memory cells.

    3) These cells are all the same except contains different genetic material, for which when activated will differentiate into their respective cells (either T-cells or B-cells).
    Thanks for the reply, with regard to the second question, my Aqa text book specifies cell mediated immunity, so T cells, are the first stage of immune response, with humoral immunity, so B-cells, the second stage of immune response. My confusion lies with why this is; can the humoral response not be first?
    thanks again
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    (Original post by BackLumbarJack)
    Thanks for the reply, with regard to the second question, my Aqa text book specifies cell mediated immunity, so T cells, are the first stage of immune response, with humoral immunity, so B-cells, the second stage of immune response. My confusion lies with why this is; can the humoral response not be first?
    thanks again
    You're better off asking your teacher as I'm not fully aware of what you're required to know for the new specification. But both responses can occur simultaneously. The purpose of B-cells is to destroy the harmful toxins (antigens) produced by pathogens, whereas T-cells kills the pathogen itself and infected body cells.
 
 
 
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