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    I would like some advice on how to effectively answer these two essay questions by providing feedback on my essay plans.

    I know that the first essay outline is pretty long and detailed, but any guidance on how to shorten/simplify it by condensing the content and structure would be great.

    I am not sure how to write good introductions and conclusions for these questions, so help with that would be great as well as directing me to relevant, quality research and resources/material.

    I would also appreciate if if tips on how to quickly and effectively memorise/learn the essay plans as well as the actual essay content, in particular studies for certain points. How will I remember the sequence? Is there a rule of thumb for the number of research studies I should aim to memorise to back up the points in order to obtain high marks (e.g. a first)?

    1. “Children are subjected to gender socialisation pressures by five main agents” – Discuss how at least two of these agents influence gender development. Use empirical evidence to support your answer.

    Essay Outline:-

    - State that there are five main agents of gender socialisation that impacts gender development: parents, siblings, peers, teachers, and the media.

    - Content statement - This essay will focus on the following two gender socialising agents: parents and peers, both of which play major roles in the process of gender development.

    Main Body:-

    Gender Socialising Agent: Parenting

    Paragraph 1: Introduce parenting as a gender socialising agent and state that they are the first set of people who influence a child's socialisation of gender. Indicate that parents impact children's gender development in four main ways: channelling & shaping, differential treatment, direct instruction, and modelling.

    Paragraph 2: Channelling and shaping by parents in infancy (e.g. toys, clothing, furniture, room decorations, and names).
    - Clothing
    - Names

    Paragraph 3: Channelling and shaping by parents and differential treatment in childhood
    - Choosing gender-stereotyped activities for their children
    - Differential encouragement of gendered activities
    - Academic subjects
    - Chores

    Paragraph 4: Differential treatment by parents during infancy
    - Reactions
    - Expectations
    - Meeting basic physical needs*
    - Interactions involving toys

    Paragraph 5: Differential treatment by parents during childhood
    - Socialisation of emotion - responses to emotional behaviour
    and parent-child emotion talk.
    - Prosocial behaviour*
    - Language use
    - Responses to risky behaviour*
    - Discipline
    - Response to aggression
    - Encouragement of autonomy vs. dependence
    - Play
    - Capabilities and Competence*

    Paragraph 6: Direct instruction about gender from parents
    - Gender Essentialism

    Paragraph 7: Modelling of gender-related behaviour by parents (i.e.two-parent heteronormative families)
    - Time spent caring for children and interacting with them
    - The nature of these interactions
    - Involvement in and knowledge about their children’s lives*
    - Styles of parenting interaction*
    - Combinations of parent-child pairs as a function of gender*

    Paragraph 8: Impact of non-traditional parents on gender development*
    - Parents committed to equality of parenting and (sometimes) feminism/gender liberalism
    - Single-parent families
    - Homosexual (gay and lesbian) parents

    Gender Socialising Agent: Peers

    Paragraph 9: Introduce peers as a gender socialising agent (gender segregation and the "two cultures" of childhood), and indicate that peers are by far the most important socialisation agent that affects a child's gender development process in a number of profound/significant different ways.

    Paragraph 10: Why do children play in segregated groups?
    - Compatible play styles
    - Ability to influence
    - Preference for gender-typed activities
    - 'Borderwork'
    - In-group favouritism

    Paragraph 11: Responses to behaviour - imitation, reinforcement, and punishment

    Paragraph 12: Influence of peer-group play on behaviours and skills
    - Influence on stereotyped behaviour
    - Time spent in the peer group matters

    Paragraph 13: Impact on mental health and social adjustment

    Paragraph 14: Adult Romantic and Marital Relationships
    - Impact of gender segregation on adult relationships
    - Impact on marital relationships, intimacy, and conflict

    Paragraph 15: The Impact of Childhood Gender Segregation on Workplace Relationships
    - Workplace segregation
    - Workplace interactions
    - When women enter previously male-dominated occupations

    Paragraph 16: Men and Women as Parents
    - Mothers are the more involved parents
    - Children’s relationships with mothers and fathers are different


    * Not sure whether it is necessary to discuss/include this.

    2. Using empirical evidence, discuss how gender stereotypes, norms and attitudes in society affect both men and women in the workplace.

    Essay Outline:-

    - State how from a young age, boys and girls are socialised according to gender stereotypes, norms, and attitudes held by society, and provide examples.

    - Content statement - This essay aims to discuss how gender stereotypes, norms, and attitudes in society affect both men and women in the workplace with reference to empirical evidence/research.

    Main Body:-

    Paragraph 1: Negative impact on women in the workplace

    Paragraph 2: Negative impact on men in the workplace OR positive impact on women in the workplace

    Paragraph 3: Positive impact on women in the workplace OR negative impact on men in the workplace

    Paragraph 4: Positive impact on men in the workplace


    I am not sure on the order of presentation of the topics for paragraphs 2 and 3, so assistance with that would be excellent.

    Thank you.
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