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I would like some advice on how to effectively answer these two essay questions by providing feedback on my essay plans.

I know that the first essay outline is pretty long and detailed, but any guidance on how to shorten/simplify it by condensing the content and structure would be great.

I am not sure how to write good introductions and conclusions for these questions, so help with that would be great as well as directing me to relevant, quality research and resources/material.

I would also appreciate if if tips on how to quickly and effectively memorise/learn the essay plans as well as the actual essay content, in particular studies for certain points. How will I remember the sequence? Is there a rule of thumb for the number of research studies I should aim to memorise to back up the points in order to obtain high marks (e.g. a first)?

1. “Children are subjected to gender socialisation pressures by five main agents” – Discuss how at least two of these agents influence gender development. Use empirical evidence to support your answer.

Essay Outline:-

- State that there are five main agents of gender socialisation that impacts gender development: parents, siblings, peers, teachers, and the media.

- Content statement - This essay will focus on the following two gender socialising agents: parents and peers, both of which play major roles in the process of gender development.

Main Body:-

Gender Socialising Agent: Parenting

Paragraph 1: Introduce parenting as a gender socialising agent and state that they are the first set of people who influence a child's socialisation of gender. Indicate that parents impact children's gender development in four main ways: channelling & shaping, differential treatment, direct instruction, and modelling.

Paragraph 2: Channelling and shaping by parents in infancy (e.g. toys, clothing, furniture, room decorations, and names).
- Clothing
- Names

Paragraph 3: Channelling and shaping by parents and differential treatment in childhood
- Choosing gender-stereotyped activities for their children
- Differential encouragement of gendered activities
- Academic subjects
- Chores

Paragraph 4: Differential treatment by parents during infancy
- Reactions
- Expectations
- Meeting basic physical needs*
- Interactions involving toys

Paragraph 5: Differential treatment by parents during childhood
- Socialisation of emotion - responses to emotional behaviour
and parent-child emotion talk.
- Prosocial behaviour*
- Language use
- Responses to risky behaviour*
- Discipline
- Response to aggression
- Encouragement of autonomy vs. dependence
- Play
- Capabilities and Competence*

Paragraph 6: Direct instruction about gender from parents
- Gender Essentialism

Paragraph 7: Modelling of gender-related behaviour by parents (i.e.two-parent heteronormative families)
- Time spent caring for children and interacting with them
- The nature of these interactions
- Involvement in and knowledge about their children’s lives*
- Styles of parenting interaction*
- Combinations of parent-child pairs as a function of gender*

Paragraph 8: Impact of non-traditional parents on gender development*
- Parents committed to equality of parenting and (sometimes) feminism/gender liberalism
- Single-parent families
- Homosexual (gay and lesbian) parents

Gender Socialising Agent: Peers

Paragraph 9: Introduce peers as a gender socialising agent (gender segregation and the "two cultures" of childhood), and indicate that peers are by far the most important socialisation agent that affects a child's gender development process in a number of profound/significant different ways.

Paragraph 10: Why do children play in segregated groups?
- Compatible play styles
- Ability to influence
- Preference for gender-typed activities
- 'Borderwork'
- In-group favouritism

Paragraph 11: Responses to behaviour - imitation, reinforcement, and punishment

Paragraph 12: Influence of peer-group play on behaviours and skills
- Influence on stereotyped behaviour
- Time spent in the peer group matters

Paragraph 13: Impact on mental health and social adjustment

Paragraph 14: Adult Romantic and Marital Relationships
- Impact of gender segregation on adult relationships
- Impact on marital relationships, intimacy, and conflict

Paragraph 15: The Impact of Childhood Gender Segregation on Workplace Relationships
- Workplace segregation
- Workplace interactions
- When women enter previously male-dominated occupations

Paragraph 16: Men and Women as Parents
- Mothers are the more involved parents
- Children’s relationships with mothers and fathers are different


* Not sure whether it is necessary to discuss/include this.

2. Using empirical evidence, discuss how gender stereotypes, norms and attitudes in society affect both men and women in the workplace.

Essay Outline:-

- State how from a young age, boys and girls are socialised according to gender stereotypes, norms, and attitudes held by society, and provide examples.

- Content statement - This essay aims to discuss how gender stereotypes, norms, and attitudes in society affect both men and women in the workplace with reference to empirical evidence/research.

Main Body:-

Paragraph 1: Negative impact on women in the workplace

Paragraph 2: Negative impact on men in the workplace OR positive impact on women in the workplace

Paragraph 3: Positive impact on women in the workplace OR negative impact on men in the workplace

Paragraph 4: Positive impact on men in the workplace


I am not sure on the order of presentation of the topics for paragraphs 2 and 3, so assistance with that would be excellent.

Thank you.

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