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    Can someone please explain the function of the carrier protein and what it is suppose to do to the particles ? Also how does it work??

    When does active transport take please during photosynthesis? I know it happens when the root cells take up nitrates but does that happen during photosynthesis and if so when and why?

    I need to know this urgently so please help
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    Hey, this might help - http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebit...es/revision/2/
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    Carrier proteins allow cells to acquire molecules (such as sodium) that are necessary for the cell to carry out its function. As the cell will often be heavily saturated with such molecules, a gradient across the membrane is set up which does not favour inward movement. Therefore, with the use of carrier proteins, substances can be actively transported against the concentration gradient from outside the cell to inside the cell.
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    Also, they work by inducing a reversible conformational change in protein structure when the molecule binds to the specific binding domain outside (or inside) of the cell. This reversible conformational change offers a passage for the molecule to the inside of the cell.
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    Okays so the carrier protein are just something which attach to the molecules and the energy will allow these to push through the protein to the other side of the membrane?

    Furthermore, is respiration and aerobic respiration the same thing? So if it said respiration somewhere would it be talking about aerobic respiration?
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    (Original post by Daydreamer3)
    Okays so the carrier protein are just something which attach to the molecules and the energy will allow these to push through the protein to the other side of the membrane?

    Furthermore, is respiration and aerobic respiration the same thing? So if it said respiration somewhere would it be talking about aerobic respiration?
    Well the molecules attach to the binding site on the carrier protein, when this happens the protein structure of the carrier protein alters in such away which allows the molecule to move across the membrane. The conformational change process usually an energy-dependent process.
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    (Original post by Daydreamer3)
    Okays so the carrier protein are just something which attach to the molecules and the energy will allow these to push through the protein to the other side of the membrane?

    Furthermore, is respiration and aerobic respiration the same thing? So if it said respiration somewhere would it be talking about aerobic respiration?
    The protein's shape alters and this almost 'pushes' the molecule - energy needed.

    And, respiration can have 2 states:

    Aerobic = with oxygen, Anareobic = without oxygen.
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    And yeah as said respiration can be aerobic (requires oxygen) or anaerobic (does not require oxygen). When possible aerobic respiration will dominate as it yields more energy.
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    (Original post by Yusufff)
    The protein's shape alters and this almost 'pushes' the molecule - energy needed.

    And, respiration can have 2 states:

    Aerobic = with oxygen, Anareobic = without oxygen.
    Can you please tell me what happens in the mitochondria during aerobic respiration? I know oxygen breaks down glucose but how? And how are enzymes involved?
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    (Original post by Daydreamer3)
    Can you please tell me what happens in the mitochondria during aerobic respiration? I know oxygen breaks down glucose but how? And how are enzymes involved?
    The breakdown of Glucose (Glycolysis) occurs in the cell cytoplasm and not the mitochondria. Do you need to know about it for GCSE or are you just interested?
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    (Original post by Yusufff)
    The breakdown of Glucose (Glycolysis) occurs in the cell cytoplasm and not the mitochondria. Do you need to know about it for GCSE or are you just interested?
    I read that the mitochondria are in the cytoplasm which is where the reactions for aerobic respiration occur. I need to know about it for GCSE biology, I do tend to make my notes detailed and go beyond what the specification asks.
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    (Original post by Daydreamer3)
    I read that the mitochondria are in the cytoplasm which is where the reactions for aerobic respiration occur. I need to know about it for GCSE biology, I do tend to make my notes detailed and go beyond what the specification asks.
    That's fine then it looks like you don't need to know detailed specifics however, this website really helped me learn it for A2 - take it lightly it is harder than what you need to know:

    https://www.khanacademy.org/science/...d-fermentation
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    (Original post by Yusufff)
    That's fine then it looks like you don't need to know detailed specifics however, this website really helped me learn it for A2 - take it lightly it is harder than what you need to know:

    https://www.khanacademy.org/science/...d-fermentation
    Thank you very much!

    But does aerobic respiration reactions occur in the mitochondria then?
    And does the enzymes digest the molecules and does the whole reaction involve enzymes breaking molecules and producing new products? I want to know what part the enzymes take during the reaction but not in detail.
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    I read that the oxygen is reduced and broken down to produce water? Is this true, sorry for asking so many questions. Googles not always helpful
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    (Original post by Yusufff)
    That's fine then it looks like you don't need to know detailed specifics however, this website really helped me learn it for A2 - take it lightly it is harder than what you need to know:

    https://www.khanacademy.org/science/...d-fermentation
    ????>>>>>>>>>>>......
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    (Original post by Daydreamer3)
    I read that the oxygen is reduced and broken down to produce water? Is this true, sorry for asking so many questions. Googles not always helpful
    No, think about the chemical formula for water - H_2O. It has Hydrogen and Oxygen. Hydrogen can only react with Oxygen to produce water.
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    (Original post by Daydreamer3)
    Thank you very much!

    But does aerobic respiration reactions occur in the mitochondria then?
    And does the enzymes digest the molecules and does the whole reaction involve enzymes breaking molecules and producing new products? I want to know what part the enzymes take during the reaction but not in detail.
    Yes, aerobic respiration takes place in the mitochondria but also the first step of aerobic respiration (glycolysis) takes place in cytoplasm.
    Enzymes never digest anything. They also don't break things down. That's not what enzymes are. Enzymes bind with a substrate to form an Enzyme-Substrate complex (ESC) and this complex goes through a reaction quicker than it would've done normally. Enzymes are biological catalysts. Not all enzymes are for digestion (like amylase, pepsin etc.). Digestion are just one area where enzymes used. The enzymes in respiration simply increase the rate of reaction allowing the reaction to take place effectively, practically and efficiently under normal conditions. It's also not just one enzyme but many.
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    (Original post by BobBobson)
    Yes, aerobic respiration takes place in the mitochondria but also the first step of aerobic respiration (glycolysis) takes place in cytoplasm.
    Enzymes never digest anything. They also don't break things down. That's not what enzymes are. Enzymes bind with a substrate to form an Enzyme-Substrate complex (ESC) and this complex goes through a reaction quicker than it would've done normally. Enzymes are biological catalysts. Not all enzymes are for digestion (like amylase, pepsin etc.). Digestion are just one area where enzymes used. The enzymes in respiration simply increase the rate of reaction allowing the reaction to take place effectively, practically and efficiently under normal conditions. It's also not just one enzyme but many.
    Oh thank you!
    Do you know anything about anaerobic respiration in yeast in bread so what does the products of it ethanol and carbon dioxide do to the bread and why is it happening in the first place?
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    (Original post by Daydreamer3)
    Oh thank you!
    Do you know anything about anaerobic respiration in yeast in bread so what does the products of it ethanol and carbon dioxide do to the bread and why is it happening in the first place?
    Yeast goes through a different type of anaerobic respiration than humans go through. In yeast anaerobic respiration, glucose turns into Energy (in the form of ATP) as well Carbon dioxide and ethanol. This carbon dioxide is obviously a gas and gets trapped in the dough, so the dough rises. So you add yeast to help bread to rise.
 
 
 
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