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    Why does the intracellular fluid of a cell have a negative charge when potassium and sodium have a positive charge
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    (Original post by Wangchungtonight)
    Why does the intracellular fluid of a cell have a negative charge when potassium and sodium have a positive charge
    It's relative, there's more sodium being pumped out than potassium being pumped in. Not to mention there are negatively charged proteins in the cell too
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    Thank you so much for your answer. I absolutely understand the concentration gradient of K+ and Na+. You telling me about negatively charged Proteins helps sooo much. But i don't understand finitely how Sodium and Potassium are discriminated when they both are positively charged on a finite level. This is destroying my cranium lol. Thank you
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    (Original post by Wangchungtonight)
    Thank you so much for your answer. I absolutely understand the concentration gradient of K+ and Na+. You telling me about negatively charged Proteins helps sooo much. But i don't understand finitely how Sodium and Potassium are discriminated when they both are positively charged on a finite level. This is destroying my cranium lol. Thank you
    Yh but more sodium is pumped out than potassium is pumped in. Think of it like this, if you had 2 rooms in a house, and every time you turned 2 heaters on in 1 room you turned 3 heaters on in the other room. The room with 3 heaters being turned on every time is going to be warmer than the room with 2 heaters being turned on every time. Neither room is cold, but one is colder than the other one. The same is the case with the ions. It's just a simple case of there being a higher concentration of positive charge outside than inside. Does that make sense?
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    It's relaitve to the outside of the membrane. Because more sodiu is being pumped out of the cell there is more sodium outside there is a higher positive charge outside of the cell. So relative to the outside, the inside is more negative
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    Yes guys it makes perfect sense. Thank you so much. So atoms like cl - and proteins and phosphates are adding a negative charge inside?
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    (Original post by Wangchungtonight)
    Yes guys it makes perfect sense. Thank you so much. So atoms like cl - and proteins and phosphates are adding a negative charge inside?
    Proteins and phosphates yes, chloride no. Chloride is in a higher concentration outside of the cell, basically ions diffuse in and out of cells depending on their equilibrium potential and the membrane potential (this is the basis of action potentials), the membrane potential at rest is negative, and the equilbrium potential of Cl is negative, so chloride will tend to diffuse out of the cell. This is because a negative membrane potential means that the inside of the cell is more negative relative to the outside, so the chloride ions moves down their electrochemical gradient (i.e. to where it is more positive) to reach equilibrium. If the membrane potential was positive, then the chloride would diffuse into the cell because that will lower the membrane potential back to chloride's electrochemical equilbrium. As I said, this is the basis of action potentials, sodium has a positive equilibrium potential, so it wants to diffuse into the cell to achieve equilbrium, however it can't do so until sodium channels are open. But anyway, you don't need to worry about any of what I just said, you just need to know that more sodium is pumped out than potassium is pumped in, that is why the outside is more positive than the inside.
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    Is this mechanism the result of stimuli of all cells as well as sending cells as well as just cleaning up waste? i'm trying to find motives if any. thank you so much again you are truly brilliant people)
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    Also I wish to ask what are the charges of the phosphates and ATP?
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    (Original post by Wangchungtonight)
    Is this mechanism the result of stimuli of all cells as well as sending cells as well as just cleaning up waste? i'm trying to find motives if any. thank you so much again you are truly brilliant people)
    What? I have no idea what any of that meant haha
 
 
 
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