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    The bat is the only mammal to achieve flapping flight. Such locomotion is highly energy demanding, especially when hovering. The bat therefore shows clear adaptations for maximising oxygen supply to the respiring muscles. Oxygen supply and food intake must be balanced against the energy requirements for muscular activity and thermoregulation.
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    1. Figures 1a and 1b shows the main features of the mammalian airway.

    a) Identify the structures labelled b and c.
    b) Compare the distribution of cartilage in structures a and b. (2 marks)

    2. Figure 1b shows an enlargement of a portion of the lung. The structures d, e, and f are also shown, which is from the lung of a bat.
    a) What is the specific name of the tissues forming the walls labelled d and f? (2 marks)
    b) The layer labelled e is the extracellular matrix and contains proteins such as collagen. What role might this layer play in the lung ventilation cycle? (2 marks)
    c) The scale bar on the photograph is 3 the diffusion long. um distance between the air in the lung and the blood point indicated by the arrow. Show your working. (2 marks)

    3. the short diffusion distance calculated in question the anima 2b helps to achieve the high oxygen demands of active flight. oxygen to the respiring muscles (cm3 minute per kg mass) of an actively flying bat can be more than three times that achieved in a human. Suggest and explain some other adaptive features of the pulmonary and circulatory systems of the bat that would allow it to achieve this increased oxygen supply. (8 marks)

    4. Insectivorous bats are commonly active for only part of the day, usually being nocturnal. They exhibit periods of torpor (short term reduction in body temperature and low metabolic rate) in between bouts of activity. Periods of torpor increase in length in cooler conditions. Suggest the possible advantage gained the bat by this behaviour. (2 marks)

    This is due in soon! Please Help! Thank you!
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    I found this so hard!!! Any A2 or University student can help?! Much appreciated!!!

    (Original post by EdisonC)
    I found this so hard!!! Any A2 or University student can help?! Much appreciated!!!
    where are the answers

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