Phillip_Rankin88
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I need help referencing, think this where I am losing marks. Here the following:

PDF Document
Chapter 5: Leadership In Sports
Author: PACKIANATHAN CHELLADURAI
Available at: file:///C:/Users/phillip/Downloads/ch5%20(1).pdf

The Mediation Model
The original mediational model of leadership (R. E. Smith,
Smoll, & Hunt, 1978) consisted of (a) coach behaviors,
(b) players’ perceptions and recollections of those behaviors,
and (c) players’ evaluative reactions. The cognitive
processes of perceptions, recall, and reactions are as
important as the behaviors themselves
[ABOVE IS FROM RESEARCH PAPER]

I usually paraphrase. So how do I reference this?

Many thanks, PR
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macpatgh-Sheldon
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Hi,

You have done the right thing in downloading and saving your .pdf reference.

To cite it and list it in the REFERENCES section at the end of your document, you will use the style recommended by your college/uni in their specs for student projects/coursework, etc.

There are over 4000 different styles used by different journals/institutions.

If your uni specifies Harvard style it would be as below:-

The prognosis of a complication such as infection after TKR depends on various factors, including age, level of commitment to physiotherapy and the type of prosthesis used. (Cairns et al., 2010) Infections can be caused by various organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus species, and in some cases, fungi; the nature of the pathogen may also have a bearing on the outlook.

REFERENCES:

CAIRNS, D. M., UCHIMURA, T., KWON, H., LEE, P. G., SEUFERT, C. R., MATZKIN, E. & ZENG, L. 2010. Muscle cells enhance resistance to pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced cartilage destruction. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 392, 22-28.
The usual practice with .pdfs is, as you have done, save the file on your HD, then cite it and list it as above. Your teacher/examiner does not have access to your laptop, so you do not add the path as you have done in your first section.

You can add the url and when you accessed it (date in parentheses) at the end.
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macpatgh-Sheldon
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A little more help Phillip,

The style specifies the case of different parts of the reference, how many authors are named before "et al", whether the publication year is just after author names or at the end and whether this year is in parentheses or not, whether article title is in bold, italics, etc.

The example below shows referencing in APA (American Psychological Association) style [for a research paper] [ the style for an excerpt from a book is different [first authors and somewhere the names of the editors of the book) + Edition - will show you an example.

The prognosis of a complication such as infection after TKR depends on various factors, including age, level of commitment to physiotherapy and the type of prosthesis used. (Cairns et al., 2010) Infections can be caused by various organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus species, and in some cases, fungi; the nature of the pathogen may also have a bearing on the outlook.

Thrombin is generated from prothrombin and this catalyses the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. (Yang et al., 2015)
The linear molecules of fibrin permit “tangling” to produce the blood clot.

APA Style

Cairns, D. M., Uchimura, T., Kwon, H., Lee, P. G., Seufert, C. R., Matzkin, E., et al. (2010). Muscle cells enhance resistance to pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced cartilage destruction. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 392(1), 22-28.
Yang, Z. J., Sheth, S. H., Smith, C. H., Schmotzer, A. R., Lippello, A. L., Al-Khafaji, A., et al. (2015). Plasma from chronic liver disease subjects exhibit differential ability to generate thrombin. Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis : an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis, 26(7), 844-847.


SAME TEXT AS ABOVE (different style): (British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology)
1. Cairns DM, Uchimura T, Kwon H, Lee PG, Seufert CR, Matzkin E, Zeng L. Muscle cells enhance resistance to pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced cartilage destruction. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2010; 392: 22-28.
2. Yang ZJ, Sheth SH, Smith CH, Schmotzer AR, Lippello AL, Al-Khafaji A, Chopra KB, Smith RE. Plasma from chronic liver disease subjects exhibit differential ability to generate thrombin. Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis : an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis 2015; 26: 844-47.
You will notice that:
In the 2nd style:
1. All authors are listed (NO et al)
2. The year is after the title (after author names in 1st)
3. The year is enclosed in parentheses.

So you have to check from your uni library which style they require.

Hope this helps.
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Phillip_Rankin88
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Hi macpatelgh, thanks for getting in touch.

So from the above information, do I reference Chelladurai or Smith et al?

Thanks, PR






(Original post by macpatelgh)
Hi,

You have done the right thing in downloading and saving your .pdf reference.

To cite it and list it in the REFERENCES section at the end of your document, you will use the style recommended by your college/uni in their specs for student projects/coursework, etc.

There are over 4000 different styles used by different journals/institutions.

If your uni specifies Harvard style it would be as below:-

The prognosis of a complication such as infection after TKR depends on various factors, including age, level of commitment to physiotherapy and the type of prosthesis used. (Cairns et al., 2010) Infections can be caused by various organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus species, and in some cases, fungi; the nature of the pathogen may also have a bearing on the outlook.

REFERENCES:

CAIRNS, D. M., UCHIMURA, T., KWON, H., LEE, P. G., SEUFERT, C. R., MATZKIN, E. & ZENG, L. 2010. Muscle cells enhance resistance to pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced cartilage destruction. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 392, 22-28.
The usual practice with .pdfs is, as you have done, save the file on your HD, then cite it and list it as above. Your teacher/examiner does not have access to your laptop, so you do not add the path as you have done in your first section.

You can add the url and when you accessed it (date in parentheses) at the end.
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macpatgh-Sheldon
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Hi again,

I see where you are coming from:

The fact that you quote Chapter 5 suggests it is a book.

On the other hand, you mention at the end that it is a research paper (as far as I am aware, research papers do not have chapters; the exception would be if it was a review, in which case it might have sections or sub-headings, and conceivably, these could be labelled "chapters".

If you able to post a link to the .pdf, I can hopefully download a citation, possibly as an .ris file, which I could import into Endnote (professional referencing software) whereby we would probably know who would be considered to be the authors.

If your excerpt is from Chapter 5 of a book, then it depends whether the whole book is edited by an expert on the general subject, with the specialist Chapter authored by a specialist.

Looking at your text, it appears most likely that the article (.pdf) is authored by Chelladurai, and that in the text described by this author (Chelladurai), he/she has him/herself cited another paper by Smith et al, so I am almost certain you will cite it as Chelladurai P, et al (year??), and if it is a book (looks likely) then chk out who is(are) the editor(s) of the whole book and add Editor(s) xxxxx and Edition No. and publisher's name and city.

EXAMPLE:
Molinoff, PB (2011) Neurotransmission and the Central Nervous System (Chapter 14) in Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics 12th Ed Edited by Brunton LL, Chabner BA & Knollman BC pp. 387-93 McGraw-Hill, New York.

Where Molinoff would be replaced by Chelladurai and Brunton et al replaced by the editors of your book (and you would add the url and Accessed Date (the latter in parentheses) at the end assuming you located it online (the above is a physical book).

Regards,
M.
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macpatgh-Sheldon
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Reality Check
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(Original post by Phillip_Rankin88)
I need help referencing, think this where I am losing marks. Here the following:

PDF Document
Chapter 5: Leadership In Sports
Author: PACKIANATHAN CHELLADURAI
Available at: file:///C:/Users/phillip/Downloads/ch5%20(1).pdf

The Mediation Model
The original mediational model of leadership (R. E. Smith,
Smoll, & Hunt, 1978) consisted of (a) coach behaviors,
(b) players’ perceptions and recollections of those behaviors,
and (c) players’ evaluative reactions. The cognitive
processes of perceptions, recall, and reactions are as
important as the behaviors themselves
[ABOVE IS FROM RESEARCH PAPER]

I usually paraphrase. So how do I reference this?

Many thanks, PR
Have you thought about using an app such as Zotero which will automatically format, store, and insert references for you? It saves this formatting (though of course it's always good to understand how something is referenced, rather than just relying on the computer to do it for you)
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