could someone please give me a rundown off all the major components of current uk politics, such as left and right wing extremists, different parties and their policies, positives and negatives off all these things and why
Your county and constituency will also have their own local Council, which is sometimes run by an entirely different party than the MP's in that area. They talk about issues specific to the region you live in- for example, bin collection, public parks, that sort of stuff.
The main parties in the UK are as followed. Warning, some bias may reside!
Conservatives- This is the party currently in power, led by Theresa May. They are a right-wing party, both socially and economically. They like to keep things the same, as much as possible. They support capitalism. Although the party is split on Brexit, they are under orders to see that it goes ahead from Mrs. May. They are sometimes referred to as Tories. Some important Conservatives you may have heard of include David Cameron, Boris Johnson, and George Osborne. The Conservatives tend to be good for the rich, and not so good for everyone else. They also tend to make young people worse off.
Under the Tories, you will see a hard Brexit, more privatisation of the NHS, and a lot more austerity. They also pledge to slash welfare benefits, and decrease tax for the wealthy. In addition, they want to abolish many workers' rights, and have quite a laissez-faire market.
If the Conservatives get into power this election, it will be almost impossible to remove them again- they want to redraw constituency boundaries in a way that loses seats for the other parties in 2020.
Labour- Labour is the main opposition party, and the largest left-wing one. It is led by Jeremy Corbyn- however, a large proportion of Labour does not support him. The Labour Party is economically and socially left-wing party, supporting socialism. They will aim for either a soft Brexit, prioritising access to the single market, or re-holding the EU referendum. Some important Labour politicians you may have heard of include Ed Miliband, Tony Blair, and Sadiq Khan. The Labour party tends to be better for low and middle income earners, and not so good for very high income owners, or those who accumulate their wealth through corrupt means. They prioritise families and young people. They support the NHS (in fact, they founded it in 1952) and are against austerity. They are pro-workers rights.
Liberal Democrats- The Liberal Democrats prioritise social issues, and can be seen as a liberal centrist party. They are led by Tim Farron. Lib Dems tend to be pro-Remain. Some important Liberal Democrats you may have heard of include Nick Clegg and, uh, they're not too important at the moment, with only about a dozen seats in Parliament. They used to be a far more significant party; their power was slashed in the 2015 elections.
The SNP only applies if you live in Scotland- they're pro-Remain and want Scotland to leave the UK.
UKIP is a right-wing Brexiteer party with very little power.
The Greens are environmentalists with very little power.
Plaid Cymru is a Welsh party with very little power.
Hope this explains things a little; it's a little biased and I'm no expert on politics. Your best way to find out about current affairs is by following a range of media sources- you can tell which are quality and which aren't.