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SCLY3 2017 resit predictions watch

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    I'm resitting the old spec SCLY3 'beliefs in society' paper this year, anyone have any predictions?? Last year was science, secularisation, ethnic groups and social change questions.
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    (Original post by emma.gilbert)
    I'm resitting the old spec SCLY3 'beliefs in society' paper this year, anyone have any predictions?? Last year was science, secularisation, ethnic groups and social change questions.
    I guess you can pretty much rule out secularisation being the 33 marker as well as Science.
    I also doubt social change will come up

    It's looking like theories of religion may come up?
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    I thought so too, maybe sects/cults etc aswell.
    Thanks
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    (Original post by emma.gilbert)
    I thought so too, maybe sects/cults etc aswell.
    Thanks
    You never know
    Aqa maybe cruel and repeat
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    Anyone have predictions for SCLY 4 resit please?
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    Anyone
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    I've got some predictions

    do u need them for 21 markers, 15 or 33
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    (Original post by zoedhin)
    I've got some predictions

    do u need them for 21 markers, 15 or 33
    All for unit 3 and 4
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    (Original post by zoedhin)
    I've got some predictions

    do u need them for 21 markers, 15 or 33
    All units please 😊 2,3,4
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    (Original post by Sceintific)
    All units please 😊 2,3,4
    21 and 33 mks please SCLY 4
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    I'm making predictions for unit 3 now ... I've made them for unit 4 will post them all afterwards


    but do u guys think that since social change came up as an 18 marker last year ... can we get it as a 33 marker this year


    and fundamentalism came up as an 18 marker a few years ago can we get that as a 33 marker or is it more likely to remain as an 18 marker
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    (Original post by zoedhin)
    I'm making predictions for unit 3 now ... I've made them for unit 4 will post them all afterwards


    but do u guys think that since social change came up as an 18 marker last year ... can we get it as a 33 marker this year


    and fundamentalism came up as an 18 marker a few years ago can we get that as a 33 marker or is it more likely to remain as an 18 marker
    What would the fundamentalism question look like? What kind of stuff would you include?
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    (Original post by emma.gilbert)
    What would the fundamentalism question look like? What kind of stuff would you include?
    Assess sociological explanations of the rise of religious fundamentalism (33 marks)

    So include a range of explanations - Giddens, Bruce, Bauman and Castells. Start by giving a brief definition of fundamentalism indicating it's possible forms and suggesting why it has been the focus of recent sociological interest. Link the rise of fundamentalism to cultural defence theory and to huntingtons 'clash of civilisations' claim. Evaluation could take the form of criticisms of each of the different explanations
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    For unit 4 a lot of people are predicting values but I personally think social policy will come up as they've never asked that before what do u think?
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    (Original post by zoedhin)
    Assess sociological explanations of the rise of religious fundamentalism (33 marks)

    So include a range of explanations - Giddens, Bruce, Bauman and Castells. Start by giving a brief definition of fundamentalism indicating it's possible forms and suggesting why it has been the focus of recent sociological interest. Link the rise of fundamentalism to cultural defence theory and to huntingtons 'clash of civilisations' claim. Evaluation could take the form of criticisms of each of the different explanations
    Ok thanks! Do you think this is likely to come up as I have hardly done anything on this??
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    (Original post by zoedhin)
    For unit 4 a lot of people are predicting values but I personally think social policy will come up as they've never asked that before what do u think?
    Wouldn't that be obvious
    Would love that but would aqa be against that since they will think that everybody would revise that since it's never come up before
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    A lot of people are asking me what you should have put in the stability q, dont worry about it anymore but here is an essay of what i did on it:

    The main function of religious belief is to promote social stability according to Functionalists. When Durkheim did research of religion in the Australian Aborigines he found that they have a totem which is an emblem of the clan. This totem is a symbol of god and of their society. Durkheim argues that as the totem is both the symbol of god and society, then people are not actually worshipping God but are in fact worshipping society.

    Durkheim believed that the main function of religious belief is to promote social stability which is reinforced by the collective conscience. The collective conscience is the shared values and moral beliefs and without them, there would be no social order, social control, social solidarity or cooperation. Durkheim says that the attitudes of respect towards the sacred is the same attitudes applied to social duties and obligations, therefore people are worshipping society and recognising the importance of the social group. Religion strengthens the unity of the group and promotes social stability by bringing them together at religious rituals. When being together in religious rituals, social groups are able to express their faith and their common beliefs and values. However, in contemporary society there is a range of beliefs which can cause friction, keeping communities apart and posing a threat to social stability.

    Malinowski, who is also a functionalist agreed with Durkheim that religion reinforces social norms and values and promotes social solidarity. He believes that the main function of religious belief is to promote social stability for example in crisis of life. He believes that religion helps deal with the problem of death with the religious celebration of the funeral. A funeral denies the fact of death and comforts the people who it has affected. The people who attend the funeral are there to comfort those who it has affected and this therefore controls the stress that would undermine social solidarity.

    Religion creates and legitimates societies basic norms and values by sacralising them. Robert Bellah (1970) argues that what unifies American society is an overarching civil religion- a belief system that attaches scared qualities to society itself. In the American case, civil religion is a faith in Americanism or the ‘American way of life’. Civil religion integrates society in a way that individual religions cannot. American civil religion involves loyalty to the notion-state and belief in God, both of which are equated with being a true American. It is expressed in various rituals, symbols and beliefs e.g. the pledge of allegiance to the flag which promotes value consensus and social stability.

    Marxists see religion as an entirely conservative ideology- a set of ruling class ideas that legitimate class inequalities. In Marx’s view religion operates as an ideological weapon used by the ruling class to legitimate the suffering of the poor as something inevitable and god-given. Religion misleads the poor into believing they will be rewarded in the after life. For example, according to Christianity, it is easier for a camel to pass through the eye of needle than it is for a rich man to enter the Kingdom of heaven. Such ideas create a false consciousness- a distorted view of reality that prevents the poor from acting to change their situation which maintains social stability. However, Marxists ignore the positive functions of religion and some Neo-marxists see certain forms of religion as assisting, not hindering, the development of class consciousness.

    Weber argued against the Marxist view that religion is always shaped by the economic base of society. Although he agreed with Marx that religion is sometimes shaped by economy, he claimed that the relationship can sometimes be reversed so that religion can cause economic change. For example, Weber (1905) in the protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism argues that the religious beliefs of Calvinism helped to bring about major social change- the emergence of modern capitalism in Northern Europe. God had predetermined which souls would be saved ‘the elect’ and which would not, even before birth. Calvinists led an ascetic lifestyle shunning all luxury, working long hours and practicing rigorous self- disciple. As a result, driven by their work ethic, they systematically accumulated wealth but did not spend it on luxuries, instead reinvesting it in their businesses to produce further profit. They prospered and came to see this as a sign of God’s favour and their salvation. Weber had a distinctive theoretical view compared to Marx. He agreed that material forces were important, but he was also in part an idealist- he believed that ideas and beliefs could shape society.

    Bruce describes the struggles of the black civil rights movement of the 1960s to end racial segregation as an example of religious motivated social change. The black clergy led by Dr martin Lurther king were the backbone of the movement, giving support and moral legitimacy to activists. The black civil rights movements attempted to end racial segregation which occurred in many Southern states, e.g. schools were segregated, inter-racial marriages forbidden and blacks often excluded from voting. Bruce sees religion in this context as an ideological resource- beliefs that protestors could draw on for motivation and legitimation. Religion organisations are well equipped to support protests and contribute to change e.g. by taking the moral high ground- pointing out the hypocrisy of the white clergy who supported racial segregation. Bruce sees the civil rights movement as an example of religion becoming involves in secular struggle and helping to bring about change.

    Lyon(2000) argues that postmodern society has several features that are changing the nature of religion- globalisation, the increased importance of the media and consumerism. As a result, traditional religion is giving way to new religious forms and these demonstrate its continuing strength. As a result of globalisation, there is increased movement of religious ideas across national boundaries. In Lyon’s view religion has relocated to the sphere of consumption. People may have ceased to belong to religious organisations, but have not abandoned religion. One effect of having great access to a great variety of different beliefs is a loss of faith in ‘meta-narratives’ because people become sceptical that any of them is really true.

    Niebuhr (1929) argues that sects are world- rejecting organisations that come into existence because of schism- splitting from an established church because of a disagreement over religious doctrine. Ernst Troeltsch (1912) argues that unlike Churches, sects are hostile to wider society and they expect a higher level of commitment. They draw their members from the poor and oppressed. They are not connected to the state and tend to have norms and values that are quite different from those of the wider society, so they can be regarded with suspicion and hostility by non-members. They may even be in opposition to the state and class with the law; they tend to be radical rather than conservative. Sects such as this are clear examples of religion being a radical force. They might not have much influence on the wider society but they are in favour of changes, and thus can lead to conflict and undermine social stability.

    There have been some major changes in religion in the UK since the 19th century, for example there has been a fall in the proportion of the population attending church. In 1962, Wilson found that 45% of Americans attended church on Sundays, but this was more an expression of the ‘American way of life’ than of religious beliefs. For Wilson, America is a secular society because religion there has become superficial. Evidence supporting the claim that America is becoming increasingly secular is opinion polls asking people about church attendance suggests it has been stable at about 40% of the population since 1940. However, this figure may be an exaggeration.



    Fundamentalism causes conflict with other groups who they see as a threat to their religion. Fundamentalism can be seen as a response to changes, since fundamentalists seek to reverse changes that have already taken place in society or religion. Fundamentalism integrates believers as functionalists would argue and it may appeal to the disadvantaged and oppressed as marxist claim but it often acts as a radical force, so it also contradicts those theories. Steve Bruce (2000) believes that fundamentalism is caused by secularisation. He argues that the decline of religion, and modernisation which science and rationality are favoured, tend to undermine traditional religious faith.

    In conclusion, whilst functionalists believe religion promotes social stability acting to bring society closer tighter through social interrogations of norms and values, not all sociologists share this positive view. Marxists share the view that religion inhibits change and acts as an important agency of socialisation, but they see this as ideological and a means of duping the population. Others see religion as plainly divisive and a major source of conflict in the world.
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    Is there any predictions for unit 4?
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    any predictions? for unit 4?
 
 
 
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